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Psychiatry

FA complete review Part I

QuestionAnswer
What is Classical Conditioning? Learning in which a natural response is elicited by a conditioned, or learned, stimulus that previously was presented in conjunction with an unconditioned stimulus
What type of responses are elicited by Classical conditioning? Involuntary responses
What are the typical experiments done to explain Classical conditioning? Pavlov's classical experiment with dogs
The ringing of a bell causing a dog to salivate, is an example of what type of "conditioning"? Classical conditioning
Learning an involuntary response due to a repeated action, is the simplified definition of what type of learning conditioning? Classical conditioning
What type of learning conditioning elicits Voluntary responses? Operant conditioning
What type of responses are seen with Operant conditioning? Voluntary responses
What are the two types of learning conditioning? 1. Classical conditioning ---> involuntary response 2. Operant conditioning ---> Voluntary responses
What is the definition of Operant conditioning? Learning in which a particular action is elicited because it produces a punishment or reward
Which type of learning conditioning is associated with "punishment" or "reward"? Operant conditioning
Behavior due to a fear to punishment Operant conditioning
A kid behaving properly during mass is due to the fact he's going to McDonalds afterwards. What type of learning is this example? Operant conditioning
What are the 3 subtypes of Operant conditioning? 1. Reinforcement 2. Punishment 3. Extinction
Description of Reinforcement as a type of Operant conditioning. Target behavior (response) is followed by either: 1. Desired reward (positive reinforcement), or 2. Removal of of aversive stimulus (negative reinforcement)
In a Reinforcement, what is the positive reinforcement? The desired reward is provided
In Punishment, a type of Operant conditioning, what is the Positive Punishment? Application of aversive stimulus
Repeated application of aversive stimulus or removal of desired reward to extinguish unwanted behavior. What type of operant learning (condition) this is? Punishment
Definition of Extinction as a operant learning type: Discontinuation of reinforcement eventually eliminates behavior.
Extinction as learning conditioning is Operant, Classical, none, or both? It can be Operant and Classical
What type of quadrant graphic depicts the relationship between Behavior and Positive/Negative punishment? Skinner Operant conditioning quadrants
What is Transference? Patient projects feelings about formative or other important persons onto physician
Psychiatrist is seen as a parent, is an example of __________________. Transference
What is Countertransference? Doctor projects feelings about formative or other important persons onto patient
What is a common example of Countertransference? Patient reminds physician of younger sibling
If the feelings are from the patient to the doctor, it is _____________________. Transference
Romantic feelings from the doctor to the patient, is _____________________. Countertransference
What are Ego defenses? Thoughts and behaviors used to resolve conflict and prevent undesirable feelings
Ego defence behaviours are: Voluntary or involuntary
List of Immature ego defense mechanisms: 1. Acting out 2. Denial 3. Displacement 4. Dissociation 5. Fixation 6. Idealization 7. Identification 8. Intellectualization 9. Isolation (of affect) 10. Passive aggression 11. Projection 12. Rationalization 13. Reaction formation 14. Regression 15. Repression 16. Splitting
List of Mature ego defense mechanisms: 1. Sublimation 2. Altruism 3. Suppression 4. Humor
Description of "Acting out": Subconsciously coping with stressors or emotional conflict using action rather than reflections or feelings
What is a common (adult) example of acting out? Skipping therapy session after feeling deeply discomfort due to reviving the past.
What is denial? Avoiding the awareness of some painful reality
A patient plans a full time schedule despite been warned about the fatigue that will be experience with chemotherapy. This is an example of what type of ego defence mechanism? Denial
What is the definition of Displacement? Redirection of emotions or impulses to a neutral person or object
A nurse is reprimanded by the hospital administrator, and frustrated returns home, where he criticizes his wife's cooking skills. Example of: Displacement
What is dissociation? Temporary, drastic change in personality, memory, consciousness, or motor behavior to avoid emotional stress. Patient may have incomplete or no memory of traumatic event
What type of immature ego defense mechanism is commonly exhibited by rape victims? Dissociation
A teenager becomes numb and detached when she faces her sexual abuser. This is an example of: Dissociation
Kicking the family dog, after an argument with the wife is an example of: Displacement
What is the definition of Fixation? Partially remaining at a more childish level of development
What is the difference between fixation and regression? Fixation demonstrates voluntary childish behavior, while regression is an involuntary return to a childish behavior
What is the description of Idealization? Expressing extremely positive thoughts of self and others while ignoring negative thoughts
A person praising somebody on accomplishments and completely ignoring that person's flaws. Idealization
What type of ego defense is seen with Trump supporters despite his lies? Idealization
What is the description for Identification as self defense mechanism? Largely unconscious assumption of the characteristics, qualities, or traits of another person or group
Adopting a unconscious behavior or action from a individual or group. Identification
Intellectualization is: Using fact and logic to emotionally distance oneself from a stressful situation
What is isolation (of affect)? Separating feelings from ideas and events
A person in the police station describing a very violent murder with no emotional response. Example of: Isolation (of affect)
Demonstrating hostile feelings in a non-confrontational manner Passive aggression
Showing indirect opposition very likely in a sarcastic form Passive aggression
Definition of Projection: Attributing an unacceptable internal iimpose to an extenal source
A man who wants to cheat on his wife accuses his wife of being unfaithful. Example of: Projection
Definition of Rationalization: Asserting plausible explanations for events that actually occurred for other reasons, usually to avoid self-blame
A medical student that failed his USMLE Step 1, and comments "I didn't even study and just wanted to get it out of the way". Rationalization
What is reaction formation? Replacing a warded-off idea or feeling with an emphasis on its opposite
Replacing a "bad" feeling with opposite actions, but not positive course of action at times. Reaction formation
What is Regression? Involuntary turning back the maturational clock to behaviors previously demonstrated under stress
A child that has been toilet trained, starts requiring diapers again, when he is introduced to his pre-K school. Regression
What is Repression? Involuntary withholding an idea or feeling from conscious awareness
A 20-year -old does not remember going to counseling during his parents' divorce 10 years earlier. Example of: Repression
What is the definition of Splitting? Believing that people are either all good or all bak at different times due to intolerance of ambiguity.
What ego mechanism is associated with Borderline personality disorder? Splitting
Splitting is often seen with which personality disorder? Borderline personality disorder
Definition of Sublimation: Replacing an unacceptable wish with a course of action that is similar to the wish but socially acceptable
Mature or Immature ego defense: Sublimation? Mature
Mature or Immature ego defense: Altruism? Mature
Mature or Immature ego defense: Suppression? Mature
Mature or Immature ego defense: Humor? Mature
Mature or Immature ego defense: Splitting? Immature
Mature or Immature ego defense: Repression? Immature
Mature or Immature ego defense: Regression? Immature
Mature or Immature ego defense: Reaction formation? Immature
Mature or Immature ego defense: Rationalization? Immature
Mature or Immature ego defense: Projection? Immature
Mature or Immature ego defense: Passive aggression? Immature
Mature or Immature ego defense: Isolation of affect? Immature
Mature or Immature ego defense: Intellectualization? Immature
Mature or Immature ego defense: Identification? Immature
Mature or Immature ego defense: Idealization? Immature
Mature or Immature ego defense: Fixation? Immature
What is an clear or common example of Sublimation? A teenager excelling in sports after avoiding aggression toward parents
What is Altruism? Alleviating negative feelings via unsolicited generosity, which provides gratification
What type of ego defense mechanism is expressed by a mafia boss making a large contribution to charity? Altruism
Definition of Suppression: Intentionally withholding an idea or feeling from conscious awareness; temporary
A world class basketball player is headed to Game 7 of NBA finals, but is then on social media on excessive charity events. Suppression
Lightheartedly expressing uncomfortable feelings to shift the internal focus away form the distress. Humor
Example of Humor as a mechanism defense: A nervous medical student jokes about the boards
After a severe fight with wife, the husband, intentionally "forgets" and not thinks about the insults, and focus on the positive parts of the conflict. Suppression
Created by: rakomi
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