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Unit One Study Guide

Anatomy and Physiology

QuestionAnswer
name the subatomic particle that has a mass of on and no charge: neutron
name the subatomic particle that has a mass of one and a positive charge: proton
name the subatomic particle that has a mass of zero and a negative charge: electron
define atom: basic unit of matter
define molecule: two or more atoms linked by chemical bonds
define covalent bond: where an electron is shared between two atoms
define ion: an atom with a positive of negative charge
define ionic bond: transfer of electrons from one atom to another, build up of charge; opposites attract
define hydrogen bond: weak bond between molecules
define synthesis: small molecules linked into larger ones by chemical bonds
define decomposition: larger molecule, breakdown of chemical bonds, formation of smaller molecules
define isotope/radioisotope: element that has a different mass # than usual
express the following concentration is scientific notation and as a pH: 0.0001M 1x10exp-5M pH=5
express the following concentration is scientific notation and as a pH: 0.0000000000001M 1x10exp-13M pH=13
express the following concentration is scientific notation and as a pH: 0.01M 1x10exp0 pH=0
the pH scale measure the __________________ of a solution H+ concentration
what pH range(s) include acids: <7
what range(s) includes bases: >7
what range(s) includes neutral: 7
if a substance has a pH of 9, then what is its [H+] concentration? 10exp-9M
if a substance has a pH of 3, then what is its [H+] concentration? 10exp-9M
when a small amount of acid or base is added to a buffered solution what happens to the pH? why? it stays approx the same. buffer takes up and releases H+
when a small amount of acid is added to an unbuffered solution what happens to the pH? why? it goes down. acids add H+ to a solution
which of these will change the pH of a solution: HCL or NaCl? why? HCl. because it is an acid
organic molecules contain: carbon
which chemical reactions break down large molecules? decomposition
which chemical reactions use small molecules to build large ones: synthesis
name the four biological molecules and give the basic units and function for each: carbohydrates; monosaccharides; energy/building blocks lipids; fatty acids and glycerol; energy/membranes proteins; amino acids; antibodies/enzymes/transport molecules nucleic acids; nucleotides; genetic info/energy transporter
define peptide: short chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
define polypeptide: long chain of amino acids
define protein: two or more poly peptides linked by weak bonds
define peptide bond: covalent bond
classify and give a role for glucose: carbohydrate (monosaccharide); universal cellular fuel
classify and give a role for triglyceride: lipid; stores energy
classify and give a role for DNA: nucleic acid; genetic material
classify and give a role for ATP: nucleic acid (nucleotide); carries energy
classify and give a role for cholesterol: lipid; membrane component
classify and give a role for enzyme: protein; acts as a biological catalyst
classify and give a role for phospholipid: lipid; membrane component
classify and give a role for hemoglobin: protein; carries oxygen
classify and give a role for antibody: protein; defense agains disease
classify and give a role for glycogen: carbohydrate; stores energy in liver and muscles
classify and give a role for RNA: nucleic acid; transfers genetic material
a protein that undergoes a change in structure and loss of function is ____________ denatured
DNA is made up of: adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine
RNA is made up of: adenine, uracil, cytosine, guanine
unsaturated fatty acids have at least one ___________ between carbons while saturated fatty acids do not. double bond
identify these enzyme terms:substrate active site product substrate: chemical entering an enzyme reaction active site: part of the enzyme that is doing the reaction product: substrate changed to product by enzyme
enzymes carry out reactions A. quickly B. slowly A
enzymes carry out reactions A. only once B. many times B
enzymes A. carry out many types of chemical reactions B. are specialists B
enzymes are named for their ____________ and usually end in the letters ____ substrates; ase
Created by: twilight52