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Biology Unit1 Review

TermDefinition
Atom the basic units of matter and the defining structure of elements
Element a pure substance which cannot be broken down by chemical means
Molecule a group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction
Compound a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds
Atomic Number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which determines the chemical properties of an element and its place in the periodic table
Mass Number the total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus
Atomic Weight another word for mass number; the total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus
Valence Electron an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom; it can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed
Electron a stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative electricity
Proton a stable subatomic particle with a positive electric charge
Neutron a subatomic particle of about the same mass as a proton but without an electric charge
Isotope one of two or more species of atoms of a chemical element with the same atomic number and position in the periodic table and nearly identical chemical behavior but with different atomic masses and physical properties
Radioisotope a radioactive isotope
Electron Configuration the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule in atomic or molecular orbitals
Bond a bond or chemical bond is a link between atoms in molecules or compounds and between ions and molecules in crystals
Polar Bond a type of covalent bond between two atoms in which electrons are shared unequally
Non-polar Bond a bond between 2 nonmetal atoms that have the same electronegativity and therefore have equal sharing of the bonding electron pair
Hydrogen Bond a weak bond between two molecules resulting from an electrostatic attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other
Solvent a molecule that has the ability to dissolve other molecules
Solution a homogeneous mixture of solvent and solute molecules
Solute a substance that can be dissolved by a solvent to create a solution
Hydrophobic the fear of water; molecules and surfaces that repel water
Hydrophilic a molecule or portion of a molecule is one whose interactions with water and other polar substances are favorable than their interactions with oil or other hydrophobic solvents
Amino Acid an organic molecule that is made up of a basic amino group, an acidic carboxyl group, and an organic R group that is unique to each amino acid
Nucleotide one of the structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA
Peptide Bond a chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water
Lipid any of the group of fatty or waxy organic compounds readily soluble in nonpolar solvent but not in polar solvent
Saturated Fat a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds
Saccharide an organic compound containing a sugar or sugars
Specific Heat the amount of heat one gram of a substance must absorb or lose to change its temperature by one degree Celsius
Created by: aunderwood9417
 

 



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