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Unit one flash cards

TermDefinition
1. Atom the smallest particle of an element that can exist either alone or in combination
7. Atomic weight the mass of one atom of an element
8. valence electron a single electron or one of two or more electrons in the outer shell of an atom that is responsible for the chemical properties of the atom
16. Polar bond A polar bond is a covalent bond between two atoms where the electrons forming the bond are unequally distributed.Polar molecules do not share their electrons equally.
17. Nonpolar bond A bond between 2 nonmetal atoms that have the same electronegativity and therefore have equal sharing of the bonding electron pair.
18. Hydrogen bond Hydrogen bonding, interaction involving a hydrogen atom located between a pair of other atoms having a high affinity for electrons; such a bond is weaker than an ionic bond or covalent bond but stronger than van der Waals forces.
19. Solvent A solvent is a molecule that has the ability to dissolve other molecules, known as solutes.
20. Solution A solution is a homogeneous mixture of solvent and solute molecules.
21. Solute The solute is the substance that is being dissolved.
22. Hydrophobic To be hydrophobic means to fear water. In chemistry, it refers to the property of a substance to repel water. It isn't that the substance is repelled by water so much as it has a lack of attraction to it. These molecules tend to be non polar
23. Hydrophilic Hydrophilic means "water-loving." Chemical groups that tend to make substances hydrophilic include ionic (charged) groups and groups that contain oxygen or nitrogen atoms.
24. Amino acid A monomer where the small compounds that make up the
25. Nucleotide Nucleotides are organic molecules consisting of a nucleoside and a phosphate. They serve as monomeric units of the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA)
26. Peptide bond A peptide bond is a chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H2O).
27. Lipid Lipid, any of a diverse group of organic compounds including fats, oils, hormones, and certain components of membranes that are grouped together because they do not interact appreciably with water.
28. Saturated fat A fat that contains only saturated fatty acids, is solid at room temperature, and comes chiefly from animal food products. Saturated fat tends to raise the level of cholesterol in the blood.
29. Saccaride The unit structure of carbohydrates, of general formula CnH2nOn. Either the simple sugars or polymers such as starch and cellulose. The saccharides exist in either a ring or short chain conformation, and typically contain five or six carbon atoms.
30. Specific heat (water) 100 degrees Celsius
2. Element a component or constituent of a whole or one of the parts into which a whole may be resolved by analysis: Chemistry. one of a class of substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means.
3. Molecule Molecule, a group of two or more atoms that form the smallest identifiable unit into which a pure substance can be divided and still retain the composition and chemical properties of that substance.
4. Compound composed of two or more parts, elements, or ingredients:having or involving two or more actions or functions:something formed by compounding or combining parts, elements, etc.a pure substance composed of two or more elements whose composition is constant.
5. Atomic number The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of every atom of that element. The atomic number uniquely identifies a chemical element.
6. Mass number the integer nearest in value to the atomic weight of an atom and equal to the number of nucleons in the nucleus of the atom.
9. Electron It carries a negative charge of -1 which is considered the basic unit of electric charge. An electron is is not counted when determining the mass, and the electron mass is not included in calculating the mass number of atom.
10. Proton an elementary particle that is identical with the nucleus of the hydrogen atom, that along with the neutron is a constituent of all other atomic nuclei, that carries a positive charge numerically equal to the charge of an electron, and that has a mass of
11. Neutron an uncharged elementary particle that has a mass nearly equal to that of the proton and is present in all known atomic nuclei except the hydrogen nucleus
12. Isotope any of two or more species of atoms of a chemical element with the same atomic number and nearly identical chemical behavior but with differing atomic mass or mass number and different physical properties
13. Radioisotope An unstable form of a chemical element that releases radiation as it breaks down and becomes more stable. Also called radionuclide.since they have an unstable atomic nucleus (due to the balance between neutrons and protons) and emit energy and particles
14. Electron configuration Electronic configuration, also called electronic structure, the arrangement of electrons in energy levels around an atomic nucleus. According to the older shell atomic model, electrons occupy several levels from the first shell nearest the nucleus,
15. Bond A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions in ionic bonds or in a covalent bond
Created by: aknudsen
 

 



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