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Biology Vocab

Atom smallest functional unit of everything
Element atoms of all the same size and number of protons
Molecule a group of atoms stuck together through chemical bonds. smallest particle of a compound is a molecule
Compound a substance that consists of two or more elements in a unique composition
Atomic Number is the number of protons in an element
Mass Number number of protons plus the number of neutrons
Atomic mass/weight its total mass and is typically expressed in atomic mass units
Valence Electron the electrons in the outer most shell
Electron the negatively charged particles of atom
Proton the positively charged particles
Neutron a particle without an electrical charge. One of the building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. a neutron has about the same mass as a proton
Isotope various forms of an element that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
Radioisotope several species of the same chemical element with different masses whose nuclei are unstable and dissipate excess energy by spontaneously emitting radiation in the form of alpha, beta, and gamma rays
Electron Configuration the arrangement of the electrons in an atom
Bond the sharing of electrons
Polar Bond when two bonded atoms share electrons unequally
Nonpolar Bond form between two atoms that share their electrons equally
Hydrogen Bond a weak chemical bond between an electronegative atom
Solvent a molecule that has the ability to dissolve other molecules, known as solutes
Solution a homogeneous mixture of solvent and solute molecules
Solute substance that can be dissolved by a solvent to create a solution
Hydrophobic means “the fear of water”. Hydrophobic liquids will separate from water.
Hydrophilic molecule or substance is attracted to water
Amino acid the monomers that make up proteins
Nucleotide the basic building block of nucleic acids
Peptide bond a chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water
Lipid nonpolar molecule that includes fats, oils, and waxes
Saturated fat fat with a chemical nature in which the carbon atoms are saturated with hydrogen atoms and do not contain double bonds between carbon atoms
Saccharide the unit structure of carbohydrates.
Specific heat (water) is defined as the amount of heat one gram of a substance must absorb or lose to change its temperature by one degree Celsius
Created by: andreabutron
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