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A&P Module 1 CH 1

Define Anatomy The Body Parts
Define physiology How the body parts function
What is pathophysiology? The study of the processes that disturb normal function.
What are the levels of organization in the body? Make sure you know them in order. Atoms. Molecules. Organelles. Cells. Tissue. Organs. Organ systems. The human organism
Epithelial Tissue ( Include an example) Covers and lines the body's surfaces; Examples include the outer layer of the skin, the walls of the capillaries and kidney tubules
Connective Tissue (Include an example) Connects and supports parts of the body; some transports and stores materials; examples include bone, cartilage, and adipose tissues
Muscle Tissue (Include an example) Contracts to produce movement; Examples include skeletal muscles and the heart.
Nerve Tissue (Include an example) Generates and transmits pulses to regulate body function; examples include the brain and the nerves.
What are the 4 different types of tissues? Epithelial, Connective, Muscle and nerve
Name the 11 Organ systems Integumentary, Muscular, Skeletal , Digestive, Respiratory, Nervous, Lymphatic, Circulatory, Endocrine, Reproductive, Urinary
What does the integumentary system consist of and what is its function? Consists of skin, hair and nails (Function: Protection, Temperature Regulation, Water retention, Sensation)
What does the Skeletal system consist of and what is its function? Consists of Bones, Cartilage, and Ligaments (Function: Protection of body organs, Support, Movement, Blood formation)
what does the muscular system consist of and what is its function? Consists of skeletal muscles (Function: Movement, Posture, Heat Production)
What does the Lymphatic system consist of and what is its function? Consists of Lymph Nodes, Lymphatic Vessels, Lymph Thymus, Spleen, and Tonsils (Function Role in fluid balance, Production of immune cells, Defense against disease)
What does the Respiratory system consist of and what is its function? Consists of Nose, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, and Lungs (Functions: Absorption of Oxygen, Discharge of Carbon Dioxide, Acid-base balance, Speech)
What does the Urinary system consist of and what is its function? Consists of Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary Bladder, and Urethra (Functions: Excretion of wastes, Regulation of blood volume and pressure, Control of fluid, electrolytes, and acid-base balance.)
What does the nervous system consist of and what is its function? Consists of the Brain, Spinal cord, Nerves, and Sense organs (Functions: Control regulation and coordination of other systems, Sensation, and Memory.)
What does the endocrine system consist of and what is its function? Consists of Pituitary Gland, Adrenals, Pancreas, Thyroid, Parathyroids and Other organs (Function: Hormone production, Control and regulation of other systems.)
What does the circulatory system consist of and what is its function? Consists of Heart, Arteries, Veins and Capillaries (Function: Distribution of Oxygen, Nutrients, Wastes, Hormones, Electrolytes, Immune cells, and Antibodies and Balance of fluid electrolytes and Acid-base Balance.)
What does the digestive system consist of and what is its function? Consists of Stomach, small and large intestines, esophagus, Liver,mouth and pancreas (Function: Breakdown and absorption of nutrients, Elimination of wastes.)
What does the MALE reproductive system consist of and what is its function? Consists of the testis, vas deferens, Prostate, Seminal vesicles, and Penis (Function: Production and delivery of sperm, Secretion of sex hormones)
What does the FEMALE reproductive system consist of and what it its function? Female- Consists of Ovaries, fallopian tubes, breasts, Uterus and vagina (Function: Production of eggs, Site of fertilization and Fetal development, Birth, Lactation Secretion of sex hormones)
Medial Toward midline
Laterial Away from midline
Distal farther away from point of attachment
Proximal Closer to the point of attachment
Superior above
Inferior below
Anterior (Ventral) Front of body
Posterior (dorsal) Back of body
Superficial at or near the bodys surface
Deep Away from the bodys surface
Anatomical position standing erect, arms at the sides, with face, palms, and feet facing forward.
Sagittal Plane Divides the body lengthwise into right and left sides
Transverse Plane (Horizontal plane) Divides the body horizontally into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions
Frontal plane (Coronal Plane) Divides the body lengthwise into anterior and posterior portions
Ventral cavity Located at the front of the body, Consists of two compartments (the thoracic and abdominopelvic), which are separated by the diaphragm
Thoracic Cavity Subdivided into two pleural cavities (each containing a lung) and the mediastinum The mediastinum contains the heart, large vessels of the heart, trachea, esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes, and other blood vessels and nerves
Abdominopelvic Cavity Subdivided into the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity- The abdominal cavity contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs- The pelvic cavity contains the bladder, some of the reproductive organs, and the rectum
Dorsal Cavity Located at the back of the body, contains two divisions but is one continuous cavity
Cranial cavity Formed by the skull, contains the brain
Spinal cavity Formed by the vertebrae, Contains the spinal cord
Right Hypochondriac Region Liver, Gallbladder, Right Kidney
Right Lumbar Region Liver (Tip), Small intestines, Ascending colon, Right kidney
Right Iliac Region Small Intestines, Appendix, Cecum and ascending colon
Epigastric Region Stomach, Liver, Pancreas, Right and Left Kidneys
Umbilical Region Stomach, Pancreas, Small intestines, Transverse colon
Hypogastric Region- Small intestines, Sigmoid colon, Bladder
Left Hypochondriac Region Stomach, Liver (Tip) Left Kidney, Spleen
Left lumbar Region Small Intestine, Descending colon, Left kidney
Left Iliac Region- Small Intestines, Descending colon, Sigmoid colon
homeostasis The Body's ability to remain the same internally regardless of environmental factors, EX: staying at 98.9 degrees F internally even though it is snowing outside
Negative Feedback- When the effector oppresses the stimulus (such as dropping temperature), and Reverses the direction of change (Causing temperature to rise).
Positive feedback- When the effector reinforces the stimulus (Such s uterine contractions during labor which trigger the hormone oxytocin) and amplifies the direction of change (causing even greater contractions and further release of oxytocin)
Created by: hiatt02
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