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# Bio-Kinesiology

### study for Kinesiology Final

What is true of a force? A) defined as a push or pull exerted by objects on other objects B) enables an object to start moving, stop moving, and change directions C) accelerates an object (in rigid-body mechanic) D) a vector E) unit of measurement is A, B, C, D, E
What is true of an internal force? A) acts within the object or system B) can be initiated by the neuromusculoskeletal system C) can't produce changes in object's motion D) can be tensile/compressive force E) gravitational, magnetic, electrical force A)acts within the object or system B)can be initiated by the neuromusculoskeletal system C)incapable of producing changes in the object's motion D)can be a tensile or compressive force
What is true of an external force? A) acts on object as result of its interaction with environment B) can be contact or noncontact force C) can be fluid or solid that touches an object D) can't produce changes in object's motion E) frictional force = A)acts on the object as a result of its interaction with the environment B)can be a contact or noncontact force C)can be a fluid or solid that touches an object E)frictional force is an example
What is true of the force of gravity? A) equals the mass of the object B) an external force C) acts in downward direction, usually depicted with negative sign D) unit of measure is m/s E) acceleration is constant at -9.8 m/s/s B)an external force C)acts in the downward direction, usually depicted with a negative sign E)acceleration is constant at -9.8 m/s/s
What is true of a frictional force? A) result of interaction between molecules of contact surfaces B) can be static, dynamic, buoyant force C) line of action parallel to contact surface D) assist in sliding motion between surfaces E) makes vertical m A)a result of interactions between the molecules of the contact surfaces C)line of action is parallel to the contact surface
T/F Static friction exists when there is no movement between contact surfaces; dynamic friction exists when there is movement between contact surfaces True
T/F The normal contact force acts perpendicular to the contact surface True
T/F The coefficient of friction accounts for the weight of the object False
T/F In sport, the frictional force is always intentionally reduced False
What is the relationship between frictional force and normal contact force? As one increases so does the other = directly proportionate
What is the relationship between frictional force and contact surface area? Surface area has no significant affect on frictional force
What is true about linear motion? A) all points on object move same distance, direction, at same time B) can be rectilinear and curvilinear C) object can either move in straight or curved path D) referred to as translation E) object's direction can c A, B, C, D, E
What is true about angular motion? A) all points on object move in circles about same central axis B) points continually change direction and orientation C) rotary motion or rotation D) central axis always inside object E) uses laws for linear motion A)all points on the object move in circles or parts of a circle about the same central axis B)points on the object continually change direction and orientation C)referred to as rotary motion or rotation
What is true about general motion? A) not common in sport and human movement B) combo of linear and angular movement C) describes approx of motion, not exact quantities D) greater analysis than linear motion E) only occurs in space, w/o force of grav B)combination of linear and angular movement D)requires greater analysis than linear motion
Define linear kinematics
Why would more than one reference axis be needed to describe the position of an object in space? 2 dimensional space = more axis
What are 2 primary differences between the distance traveled by the object and the resultant displacement of the objectT? The distance traveled is the whole length from beginning to end, while resultant displacement is a vector and a direct line from beginning to end
What are 2 primary differences between the speed of an object and the velocity of an object? The speed of an object is a change in distance and is not a vector quantity, while the velocity of an object is a change in displacement and is a vector quantity.
What is true about acceleration? A) final is always greater than initial B) initial and final velocities move in same direction C) rate of change in velocity D) unit m/s/s E) while "speeding up" direction of motion is same as direction of acceleratio C)defined as the rate of change in velocity D)unit of measurement is m/s/s E)while "speeding up," the direction of motion is the same as the direction of acceleration; while "slowing down," the direction of motion is opposite of the direction of accel
Projectile motion? A) only acting forces are gravity and air resistance B) accel due to gravity accel object's motion C) object/body D) uniform accel = proj's position and velocity = predicted E) once proj in flight, course can't be changed A, B, C, D, E
What 2 initial conditions determine the projectile's motion? the initial horizontal and vertical velocities and the initial position of the object
In sport, what 3 most relevant measures of proj? A) time of flight B) peak of height C) horizontal displacement D) spectator response E) ESPN rating A)Time of flight - how long is the projectile in flight? B)peak height - how high is the projectile's motion? C)horizontal displacement - how far did the projectile move?
What is true about linear kinetics? A) deals with the causes of linear motion B) applies Newton's Laws of Motion C) provides the basis for particular techniques in many sport skills D) deals with the causes of angular motion A)deals with the causes of linear motion B)applies Newton's Laws of Motion C)provides the basis for particular techniques in many sport skills
What is true about Newton's First Law of Motion? A) also known as the Law of Inertia B) applies when no external force is acting on object C) applies when net external force acting on object is 0 D) horizontal motion of a proj and static equilibrium = A, B, C, D
T/F According to Newton's First Law, the sum of the external forces is 0 when acceleration is constant False
Linear momentum? A) = product of object's mass and its velocity B) resultant momentum depends on horiz and vertical components of momentum C) decreases as objects mass increases D) conservation of momentum = 2 or more objects are considered as one sys A)equals the product of the object's mass and its velocity B)resultant momentum depends on both horizontal and vertical components of momentum D)conservation of momentum is apparent when two or more objects are considered as one system
T/F If an object's velocity is constant, its momentum is constant True
What is true about perfectly elastic collisions? A) total pre-collision momentum = total post-collision momentum B) total momentum is not conserved C) coefficient of restitution = 0 D) useful in predicting post-collision velocities of objects A)the total pre-collision momentum is equal to the total post-collision momentum D)useful in predicting the post-collision velocities of the objects
What is true about perfectly inelastic collisions? A) objects bounce apart after the collision B) total momentum is conserved C) coefficient of restitution = 1 D) the post-collision velocity = the pre-collision velocity of the object with the largest B)total momentum is conserved
T/F Most collisions in sports are neither perfectly elastic nor perfectly inelastic True
T/F The coefficient of restitution shows the "bounciness" of the object and can be determined by dropping the object from a determined height and then measuring its bounce height True
Newton's 2nd Law of Motion? A) Law of Action-Reaction B) explains change in object's motion directly depends on force applied to object C) shows cause-effect relationship between force and accel D) vertical accel requires more force than horizontal ac B)explains that the change in the object's motion C)shows a cause-effect relationship between force and acceleration vertical acceleration, requires more force than horizontal acceleration since frictional force is much less than gravitational force D)
Impulse-momentum relationship? A) applies when net external force changes over time B) objects velocity will (+) as net force on object (+) C) objects velocity will (-) as time force is applied + D) instantaneous velocity more applicable than avg velo A)applies when net external force changes over time B)indicates that the object's velocity will increase as the net force on the object increases
T/F To lessen the impact force of the object, the athlete must try to increase the impact time by "giving" during impact True
T/F To increase the object's velocity and momentum at release, the athlete must try to increase the time of force application True
What is true about mechanical work? A) requires displacement of an object B) a means of transferring energy from one object to another object C) can be positive or negative D) equals the product of force and displacement A, B, C, D
Newton's 3rd Law of Motion? A) Law of Acceleration B) explains that forces exist in mirrored pairs C) For every action there is always an equal reaction in the opposite direction D) useful in drawing a free-body diagram B)explains that forces exist in mirrored pairs C)explains that for every action there is always an equal reaction in the opposite direction D)useful in drawing a free-body diagram
T/F According to Newton's Third Law, the forces are equal in magnitude but the effect of these forces are not equal True
T/F According to Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation, all object's attract each other with a gravitational force but these forces are negligible in sport except for the earth's gravitational force True
Describe the difference between concentric, eccentric, and isometric muscle contractions in terms of mechanical work concentric - when all points move together (+) eccentric - when all points move away from each other (-) isometric - points do no not move relative to each other = no work done
What is true about mechanical energy? A) defined as the capacity to do work B) includes kinetic and potential energy C) includes thermal, electrical, and hydraulic energy D) relates to an object's motion and its position A)defined as the capacity to do work B)includes kinetic and potential energy D)relates to an object's motion and its position
T/F Mechanical work and mechanical energy are both measured in Newton meters or joules True
Describe the work-energy relationship work = change in energy. As energy increases, so does the work. As work increases, so does energy. They are directly proportional to each other.
T/F If the athlete wants to maximize kinetic energy at release or takeoff, he or she must apply the largest force possible over the longest time possible True
T/F If the athlete wants to minimize kinetic energy it impact, he or she must increase the displacement during the impact True
T/F The total mechanical energy of an object is constant if gravity is the only external force acting on the object. Therefore, the total mechanical energy of a projectile is constant throughout its entire flight. True
What is true about mechanical power? A) directly related to mechanical work and inversely related to the amount of time B) directly related to force and displacement C) directly related to velocity D) measure in J/s or Watt A, B, C, D
When an external force is directed through the center of gravity of an object, what kind of motion is expected? A) general motion B) linear motion C) angular motion D) curvilinear motion B) linear motion
When 2 external forces, equal in magnitude but opposite in directiton, are applied to an object in a noncolinear fashion, what kind of motion is expected? A) general motion B) linear motion C) angular motion D) curvilinear motion C) angular motion
What 2 factors influence torque? A) force and moment arm B) force and momentum C) force and arc length D) force and velocity A) force and moment arm
T/F Because torque is a vector quantity, torques can not be added or subtracted. False
As the perpendicular distance of the muscle's insertion from the joint axis decreases, what adjustment must the muscle make to produce the same torque? The muscle must apply more force to make up for the shorter moment arm.
The line of action (or line of pull) of a muscle's force is determined by: A) the fiber type of the muscle B) the length of the muscle C) the strength of the muscle D) the attachments of the muscle D) the attachments of the muscle
What is diff in torque produced by 5lb dumbbell as compared to 5lb cuff weight? A) torques are equal since the forces are equal B) the cuff weight will produce greater torque C) the dumbbell will produce greater torque D) no torque will be produced C) the dumbbell will produce greater torque
An object to be in static equilibrium? A) forces must be colinear and torque must be angular B) forces must be greater and torque must be minimized C) forces and torque must act in opposite direction D) forces must = 0 and torque must = 0 D) external forces must equal 0 and external torque must equal 0
T/F An object's center of gravity is the point in an object through which the force of gravity acts. It represents the entire mass or weight of the object. True
If an object's shape changes so that more mass is located so that more mass is located on the left, what happens to its center of gravity? A) COG stays the same B) COG moves to the left C) COG moves to the right D) COG moves upward B) The center of gravity moves to the left
In locating an object's center of gravity, what must be known about the object? A) weight and initial velocity B) initial velocity and density C) initial velocity and final velocity D) total weight and weight of each part of object D) the object's total weight, the weight of each part of the object
In anatomical position, where is the center of gravity located? Why is it generally higher in males as compared to females? it is located right above the belly button. It is higher generally in males because they have more mass to be distributed and are generally top heavy (more mass on top)
T/F In a mechanical sense, stability is defined as the capacity of an object to quickly move its center of gravity outside of its base of support. False
What factors affect an object's stability? A) object's base of support, height of object's COG, object's weight B) object's weight, mass, kinetic energy C) height of object's COG, base of support, momentum D) object's velocity, mass, potential energy A) Object's base of support, height of object's center of gravity, object's weight
Describe the best stance and position to resist a force coming straight toward you one foot more forward than the other, center of gravity low to the ground, lean forward into force
Describe the best stance and position to resist a force coming toward your right side feet are in line with each other, center of gravity low to the ground and shifted over the right leg, feet slightly wider than shoulder width apart
When does angular motion occur? A) "when all points on an object move" in the same path about the same fixed axis B) "" in circular paths with constant velocity C) "" in linear paths about variable axes D) "" in circular paths about the same fixed axi D) when all points on an object move in circular paths about the same fixed axis
Angular position is defined as: A) the orientation of 2 lines, 2 planes, or a line and a plane B) the orientation of 2 lines or 2 planes C) the orientation of 2 lines or a line and a plane D) the orienation of 2 planes or a line and a plane A) the orientation of two lines, two planes, or a line and a plane
Angular displacement defined: A) arc between 2 rotating lines B) angle - final position and initial position of a rotating line C) distance from axis of rotation to point on rotaing line D) straight line - same point on initial and final rotating line B) the angle formed between the final position and the initial position of a rotating line
For any given angular displacement, what happens to he arc length as the radius doubles in length? A) arc length remains unchanged B) arc length decreases by 50% C) arc length decreases by 25% D) arc length doubles D) the arc length doubles
Which of the following is true? A) arc lengths are directly proportional to the radii B) arc lengths are inversely proporional to radii C)linear displacement is inversely proportional to radius D)linear displacement is inversely proportional to arc le A) the arc lengths are directly proportional to he radii
Angular velocity is defined as: A) the rate of change of linear displacement B) the rate of change of angular acceleration C) the rate of change of angular displacement D) the rate of change of arc length c) the rate of change of angular displacement
Relationship between angular velocity and linear velocity? A) as angular velocity +, linear velocity - B) No relationship since they describe different kinds of motion C) as angular velocity +, linear velocity + D) as angular velocity -, linear veloci C) as angular velocity increases, linear velocity increases
Relative to angular and linear velocities, why would a tennis player choose a longer racket over a shorter one? it has a greater radius, therefore, increasing its linear velocity
Angular acceleration is defined as: A) the rate of change of linear velocity B) the rate of change of angular velocity C) the rate of change of centripetal motion D) the rate of change of linear acceleration B) the rate of change of angular velocity
What is relationship between angular accel and linear (or tangential) accel? A) no relationship since they describe diff kinds of motion B) as angular accel -, linear accel - C) as angular accel +, linear accel - D) as angular accel -, linear accel + B) as angular acceleration decreases, linear acceleration decreases
T/F At any given radius, as angular velocity increases, centripetal acceleration increases true
T/F at any given radius, as centripetal acceleration increases, linear velocity increases True
Describe anatomical position (feet, legs, trunk, arms, hands, head) feet - facing forward legs - shoulder width apart and in a straight line with each other trunk - facing forward, back straight arms - hanging at the sides of the trunk hands - palms facing forward head - erected and facing forward
What are the 3 anatomical planes? How do these planes divide the human body? frontal - anterior and posterior parts sagittal - left and right parts transverse - inferior and superior parts
What are the 3 anatomical axes of rotation? What is the corresponding plane for each axis? anteroposterior axis - frontal plane transverse axis - sagittal plane longitudinal axis - transverse plane
For shoulder flexion and extension, what plane and corresponding axis are applicable? transverse axis - sagittal plane
For hip abduction and adduction, what plane and corresponding axis are applicable? anteroposterior axis - frontal plane
For trunk rotation, what plane and corresponding axis are applicable? longitudinal axis - transverse plane
For the golfing putting motion, what plane and corresponding axis are applicable? frontal plane - anteroposterior axis
For the swinging motion of a baseball bat, the combination of what two planes are applicable? transverse plane - longitudinal axis sagittal plane - transverse axis
What is angular inertia? A) "the property of an object" to resist changes in its linear motion B) "" to encourage changes in its linear motion C) "" to resist changes in its angular motion D) "" to encourage changes in its angular motion C) the property of an object to resist changes in its angular motion
What are the 2 factors which influence angular inertia? choose 2 A) surface area B) mass C) density D) radius of gyration E) momentum F) velocity B) object's mass D) object's radius of gyration
Which of the above 2 factors is more significant? Why? Radius of gyration because it is squared
The ______ is the length measurement that represents how far from the axis of rotation all of the object's mass must be concentrated to create the same resistance to change in angular motion. Radius of gyration
T/F An object must always rotate about an axis through its center of gravity. False
If the object rotates around an eccentric axis, how is the object's angular inertia changed? A) angular inertia remains constant B) angular inertia decreases C) angular inertia increases D) angular inertia doubles C) the object's angular inertia increases
T/F Any object has an infinite number of possible axes of rotation, so it also has an infinite number of moments of inertia True
Which of the following objects can have multiple moments of inertia for any one axis of rotation? circle all that apply A) human body B) baseball bat C) basketball D) circus-performing dog A) human body D) circus-performing dog
If a dancer is rotating about his longitudinal axis, how can he change his body position to increases his angular inertia
What is the relationship between a golf club's moment of inertia and the linear velocity generated at the club head B) as the club length increases, the club's moment of inertia increases and the linear velocity increases
T/F An object's moment of inertia is a measurement of its angular motion False
Which of the following influence an object's angular momentum? A) angular acceleration, volume, and mass B) mass, angular velocity, and density C) angular velocity, surface area, and radius of gyration D) radius of gyration, mass, and angular velocity D) radius of gyration, mass, and angular velocity
When the human body is rotating about any axis, what two variables can be manipulated to increase angular momentum? radius of gyration and angular velocity
T/F Because the human body is a multi-segmented or nonrigid object, segments of the body may create different momenta True
According to Newton's First Law of Motion, the angular momentum of an object remains constant unless a net _________ is exerted on it. external torque
When momentum remains constant or is conserved, what happens to the angular velocity if the moment of inertia increases?
T/F According to Newton's Second Law of Motion, an object's angular velocity or axis of rotation will change if a net external torque is acting on the object. False
What happens to the object's momentum if the external torque is applied to the object for a longer period of time? A) momentum - exponentially B) momentum + exponentially C) momentum - proportionately D) momentum + proportionately D) the object's momentum increases proportionately
According to Newton's Third Law of Motion, for every torque exerted by one object on another, the other object exerts an equal torque back on the first object but in the _________ direction. opposite
T/F According to Newton's Third Law of Motion, the torque exerted by one object results in the same effect as the torque exerted by the other object. False
T/F Fluid mechanics studies the forces exerted on an object as it passes through the gas or liquid medium True
What kind of force is exerted on an object which is floating in water? circle all that apply A) fluid force B) drag force C) dynamic fluid force D) buoyant force E) lift force A) fluid force D) buoyant force
________ force acts upward on the object and is considered the reaction force from the fluid. Buoyant
As more fluid is displaced by the object, what happens to the buoyant force? A)the buoyant force remains constant B)the buoyant force increases C)the buoyant force decreases D)the buoyant force does not apply B)the buoyant force increases
When will an object float? circle all that apply A) "if the object" weighs less than the weight of fluid of = volume B) weighs more than weight of fluid of = volume C)has greater density than fluid's density D) has lower density than fluid's density A) If the object weighs less than the weight of the fluid of equal volume, the object will float D) if the object has lower density than the fluid's density, the object will float
T/F Depending on the person's body composition, the person may have a lesser or greater ability to float. True
T/F Most people can float by inhaling deep breaths which increases their total body density False
When the human body floats in water, why does the lower half of the body sink downward as the chest remains at the top of the water's surface? the chest has less density than the legs, therefore the body is trying to reach an equilibrium in which no external torques are acting upon it.
What are the 2 forces which result in the dynamic fluid force? A)buoyant force and drag force B)buoyant force and lift force C)drag force and reaction force D)lift force and drag force D) lift force and drag force
What variable influence the dynamic fluid force? circle all that apply A)relative velocity B)fluid density C)fluid mass D)fluid volume E)total surface area of the object F)frontal surface area of the object A,B,C,D,E,F
What is true about drag force? A)It increases the relative velocity of the object B)It decreases when the fluid is more viscous C)It increases when the relative velocity is reduced D)It opposes the relative velocity of the object D) the drag force opposes the relative velocity of the object
How can the swimmer reduce surface drag? Give another example of an athlete reducing surface drag. 1.The swimmer can make their swimsuit as tight and smooth as possible (meaning the material isn't rough) 2.A bicyclist would do the same thing by wearing tight, smooth clothing
How can the cyclist reduce form drag? Give another example of an athlete reducing form drag. 1.By making their helmets into an egg shape in the front and the back to increase laminar flow 2.When the skier who is racing tucks down into a ball to increase their speed down the hill
When does turbulent flow occur and why is it usually undesirable in sport? 1. When he molecules do no reach the other side of the object at the same time. 2. Undesirable in sport because it decreases speed and velocity
When a swimmer experiences more drag while swimming in Utah's salt lake, he is most likely affected by which of the following factors? A)relative velocity B)fluid density C)surface area D)coefficient of drag B) fluid density
T/F Bernnoulli's Principle applies when the object's longer dimension aligns parallel to the fluid's flow False
According to Bernoulli's Principle, the lift force is generated because: A)"the difference in length between the upper and lower surfaces" creates higher and lower areas of pressure B)"" reduces fluid density C)"" + total surface area D)"" - buoyant f A) The difference in length between the upper and lower surfaces creaes higher and lower areas of pressure
T/F The Magnus Effect demonstrates a lift force when a ball is floating False
According to the Magnus Effect, backspin applied to a tennis ball will cause the ball to: A)change its flight in downward direction B)change its flight in upward direction C)change its flight to right or left D)remain on same flight course B) change its flight in the upward direction
What factor most significantly affects the lift force? relative velocity
Created by: chephi16