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Musculoskeletal

FA complete review Dermatology

QuestionAnswer
What are the 3 layers of the skin? - Epidermis - Dermis - Subcutaneous fat (hypodermis, subcutis)
What are the divisions of subcutaneous fat? Hypodermis and subcutis
What are epidermis layers form surface to base? Stratum Corneum Stratum Lucidum Stratum Granulosum Stratum Spinosum Stratum Basale
With lather of the epidermis is "keratin" found? Stratum Corneum
What protein is associated with Strum Corneum? Keratin
Which areas of body have the most prominent Stratum Lucidum? Palms and soles
Which layer of the epidermis are desmosomes found in? Stratum Spinosum
Which epidermis layer is the stem cell site? Stratum Basale
Which the innermost layer of the Epidermis? Stratum Basale
Which is the outermost (top; closest to surface) layer of the Epidermis? Stratum Corneum
Which epidermis layers is most prominent in the palms of hands and soles of feet? Stratum Lucidum
What protein/structures are found in the Stratum spinosum? Desmosomes
Any condition with a deficiency or alteration to the Desmosomes, would be evident in which layer of the epidermis? Stratum Spinosum
What is a common mnemonic used to remember the order (surface to base) of all layers of the epidermis? Californians Like Girls in String Bikinis Corneum Lucidum Granulosum Spinosum Basale
List of Epithelial cell junctions: 1. Tight junction 2. Adherens junction 3. Desmosome 4. Gap junction 5. Hemidesmosome
What is another name for Tight junction? Zonula occludens
The zonula occludens is the same as: Tight junctions
What are other ways to refer to Adherens junctions? Belt desmosome and zonula adherens
What other ways to refer to Desmosomes? Spot desmosome, and macula adherens
What is the common name for macula adherens? Desmosomes
What is the purpose of Tight junctions? Prevents paracellular movement of solutes
The Tight junctions are composed of which proteins? Claudins and occludins
Claudins and Occludins compose with epithelial cell junction? Tight junctions
Prevention of paracellular movement of solutes is the role of the: Tight junctions
Below tight junction, forms a "belt" connecting actin cytoskeleton adjacent cells with Cadherins. Adherens junctions
What is the protein or "glue" used in adherens junctions to attach adjacent cells? Cadherins
The Cadherins (proteins) are involved in which Epithelial cell junction? Adherens junctions
What is promoted by the loss of E-cadherin? Metastasis
What is a way, involving epithelial cell junctions, that promote metastasis? The loss of E-cadherin
What is the overall role of the Adherens junctions? To form a connection among adjacent actin cytoskeletons of adjacent cells
Why is the Adherens junction often referred as Belt desmosome? Forms a 'belt' connects actin cytoskeletons of adjacent cells with cadherins
What are Cadherins? Ca2+ - dependent adhesion proteins
What is the main role of Desmosomes? Structural support via intermediate filament interaction
What disease or condition is associated with Desmosomes? Pemphigus vulgaris
Pemphigus vulgaris involves which type of Epithelial cell junction? Desmosomes
Autoantibodies to Desmoglein ----> Pemphigus vulgaris
What protein is attacked by the autoantibodies which then cause Pemphigus vulgaris? Desmoglein
Autoimmune disease involving the Macula adherens? Pemphigus vulgaris
Gap junction are: Channel proteins called connexons permit electrical an chemical communication between cells
What epithelial cell junction allow for eltictial and chemicla commnction among cells? Gap junctions
What are the channel proteins used by Gap junctions? Connexons
Connexons are associated in which Epithelial cell junction? Gap junctions
What is the role of Connexons? Permit electrical and chemical communication between cells
Hemidesmosomes are on the Apical or Basolateral side(surface) of the epithelial cell? Basolateral
Tight junctions are close to the Apical or Basolateral surface of the epithelial cells? Apical
What is the purpose of Hemidesmosomes? Connects keratin in basal cells to underlying basement membrane
Which epithelial cell junction is known to connect keratin to the basement membrane? Hemidesmosomes
What condition is produced by attacking the Hemidesmosomes by autoantibodies? Bullous pemphigoid
In Bullous pemphigoid, which is the affected epithelial cell junction? Hemidesmosome
Which condition is due to antibodies affecting the keratin connection in basal cells to the underlying basement membrane? Bullous pemphigoid
What are integrins? Membrane proteins that maintain integrity of balateral membrane by binding o collagen, laminin, and fibronectin in basement membrane
Where are integrins found in the epithelial cell, apical o basolateral surface? Basolateral
To which structure (proteins) are integrins attached to in the basement membrane? Collagen, laminin, and fibronectin
Laminin is a protein in the basement membrane of epithelial cells that is often used by which structural protein? Integrins
What are the characteristics of a Macule/ Flat lesion with well-circumscribed change in skin color < 1 cm
Flat lesion, well circumscribed change in skin color, < 1 cm Macule
What are examples of Macules? Frecke, and labial macule
A freckle is an example of a ______________. Macule
What is the lesion (or term) for a macule > 1 cm? Patch
3 cm macule is referred as a _____________. Patch
What is a common example of a Patch? Large birthmark (congenital nevus)
A large birthmark, such as a congenital nevus, is an example of what dermatologic lesion? Patch
WHat are the characteristic of Papule? Elevated solid skin lesion < 1 cm
Elevated solid skin lesion of < 1 cm in size Papule
What are common examples of Papules? Mole (nevus) and Acne
Acne is a common example of a _______________________. Papule
A mole is an example of which dermatologic lesion? Papule
Papule > 1 cm. Plaque
Is a plaque, larger or smaller, than a Papule? Larger
What is a Plaque? Papule > 1 cm
What is the most common example of a Plaque? Psoriasis
Psoriasis is a example of which dermatologic lesion? Plaque
What is a vesicle? Small fluid-containing blister < 1 cm
Is a vesicle size of extend, larger or smaller than 1 cm? Smaller
What conditions are associated with vesicle dermatologic lesions? Chickenpox (varicella), and shingles (zoster)
Shingles is associated with what type of dermatologic lesion? Vesicle
Large fluid-containing blister > 1 cm Bulla
A large vesicle is known as a ___________________. Bulla
What condition is seen with Bullae? Bullous pemphigoid
What is the name of a vesicle that if fulled with pus? Pustule
What is a pustule? Vesicle contains pus
What is a common condition associated with Pustules? Pustular psoriasis
What is a Wheal? Transient smooth papule or plaque
Transient smooth papule or plque Wheal
What condition is seen with Wheals? Hives (urticaria)
What is a Scale? Flaking off of stratum corneum
Which layer of epidermis gives rise to scales? Stratum Corneum
What are common examples of scales? Eczema, psoriasis, and SCC
Eczema is an example of what type of macroscopic dermatologic lesion? Scale
Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is an example of what type of dermatologic lesion? Scale
What is the definition of Crust? Dry exudate
Dry exudate is referred as ________________. Crust
What is the most common example of a crust? Impetigo
What type of dermatologic lesion is impetigo? Crust
What are the characteristics of hyperkeratosis? Increased thickness of stratum corneum
Increased thickness of the Stratum corneum. Hyperkeratosis
What are examples of Hyperkeratosis? Psoriasis and calluses
Calluses are an example of what kind of microscopic dermatologic condition? Hyperkeratosis
What is Parakeratosis? Retention of nuclei in stratum corneum
What important condition is seen with Parakeratosis? Psoriasis
Which layer of the epidermis involves Parakeratosis? Stratum Corneum
What is the definition of Hypergranulosis? Increased thickness of stratum granulosum
Increased thickness of epidermal Stratum granulosum. Hypergranulosis
What condition is associated with Hypergranulosis? Lichen planus
Lichen planus is characterized by what dermatologic condition? Hypergranulosis
Which epidermal layer is increased in thickness in Lichen planus? Stratum granulosum
What is Spongiosis? Epidermal accumulation of edematous fluid in intercellular spaces
What is a condition seen with Spongiosis? Eczematous dermatitis
Term used for epidermal accumulation of edematous fluid in intercellular spaces. Spongiosis
What is the definition of Acantholysis? Separation of epidermal cells
What is an example condition associated with Acantholysis? Pemphigus vulgaris
Autoantibody condition that is closely associated with Acantholysis? Pemphigus vulgaris
Separation of epidermal cells. Acantholysis
What is Acanthosis? Epidermal hyperplasia (increased spinsum)
What is an example disease or condition seen with Acanthosis? Acanthosis nigricans
Epidermal hyperplasia of the Stratum spinosum Acanthosis
Which epidermal layer is affected by Acanthosis? Stratum Spinosum
What are common Pigmented Skin disorders? 1. Albinism 2. Melasma (chloasma) 3. Vitiligo 4. Seborrheic dermatitis
What pathogenesis of Albinism? Normal melanocyte number with decreased melanin production due to a decreased tyrosinase activity or defective tyrosine transport.
What are the two causes of decreased melanin production in Albinism? 1. Decreased tyrosinase activity or, 2. Defective tyrosine transport
Albinism represents an increased risk for: Skin cancer
Hyperpigmentation associated with pregnancy or OCP use. Melasma
What is another term used for Melasma? Chloasma
What is Melasma? Hyperpigmentation associated with pregnancy or OCP use
A pregnant woman notices a darkening of the skin patches. Dx? Melasma
What is Vitiligo? Irregular patches of complete depigmentation
What is the cause of Vitiligo? Autoimmune destruction of melanocytes
Skin pigmentation condition due to autoimmune destruction of melanocytes. Vitiligo
What is a Seborrheic dermatitis? Erythematous, well-demarcated plaques with greasy yellow scales in areas rich in sebaceous glands, such as scalp, face, and periocular region.
What areas of the body are often affected in Seborrheic dermatitis? Areas rich in sebaceous glands, such as scalp, face, and periocular region.
Which neurodegenerative condition is associated with Seborrheic dermatitis? Parkinson disease
A person with Parkinson disease is often affected by which dermatological condition? Seborrheic dermatitis
What pathogen is possibly associated in development with Seborrheic dermatitis? Malassezia spp
What are common treatment options for Seborrheic dermatitis? Topical antifungals and corticosteroids
What are some common causes of Acne? 1. Increased sebum/androgen production, 2. Abnormal keratinocyte desquamation, 3. Cutibacterium acnes colonization of the pilosebaceous unit, and, 4 .Inflammation of papules/pustules
What are treatment options of acne? Retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, and antibiotics
Which bacteria is often causative of acne development? Cutibacterium acnes
What is a comedone? Pilosebaceous unit
What is the former name of Cutibacterium acnes? Propionibacterium
Common skin disorder of multifactorial etiology, often involving sebum? Acne
What is another name of Atopic dermatitis? Eczema
Eczema is also known as: Atopic dermatitis
What is Atopic dermatitis? Pruritic eruption, commonly on skin flexures
What are common associations of Atopic dermatitis? 1. Atopic disease (asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food allergies) 2. Increased serum IgE
What gene is often mutated in Eczema? Filaggrin
What condition is highly associated with mutations in filaggrin gene? Atopic dermatitis
What function is interrupted by a filaggrin mutation? Skin barrier dysfunction
Atopic dermatitis in infants is present most commonly in: Face
Eczema in children and adults is often seen in what body area? Antecubital fossa
Type IV hypersensitivity reaction that follows exposure to allergen. Allergic contact dermatitis
What type of hypersensitive is Allergic contact dermatitis? Type IV
What common skin disorder is characterised by lesions that occur at site upon contact with the material? Allergic contact dermatitis
What are common examples of material that develop Allergic contact dermatitis? Nickel, poison ivy, neomycin
What is the medical term of a common mole? Melanocytic nevus
Intradermal nevus are ________________. Papular
What is the term used for flat macules? Junctional nevi
What is Pseudofolliculitis barbae? Foreign body inflammatory facial skin disorder characterized by firm, hyperpigmented papules and pustules that are painful and pruritic.
What are common sites of Pseudofolliculitis barbae? Cheeks, jawline, and neck
What is a common skin disorder that is associated of shaving ("razor bumps")? Pseudofolliculitis barbae
Which population is most often affected by Pseudofolliculitis barbae? African-American males
Papules and plaques with silvery scaling, especially on knees and elbows. Dx? Psoriasis
What is the definition of Psoriasis? Papules and plaques with silvery scaling, especially on knees and elbows
What are microscopic dermatologic conditions associated with Psoriasis? Acanthosis with Parakeratotic scaling.
What are clinical features/signs of Psoriasis? 1. Acanthosis with Parakeratotic scaling 2. Munro microabscesses 3. Increased stratum spinosum 4. Decreased stratum granulosum 5. (+) Auspitz sign
What non-dermatologic features are associated with Psoriasis? Nail pitting and psoriatic arthritis
What is Auspitz sign? Pinpoint bleeding spots from exposure of dermal papillae when scales are scraped off
A (+) Auspitz sign. Dx? Psoriasis
What is the definition of Rosacea? Inflammatory facial skin disorder characterized by erythematous papules and pustules, but no comedones.
What is rhinophyma? Bulbous deformation of nose
What is a possible adverse result of Phymatous rosacea? Rhinophyma
Associated with facial flushing in response to external stimuli, such as alcohol or heat. Dx? Rosacea
What is Seborrheic keratosis? Flat, greasy, pigmented squamous epithelial proliferation with keratin-filled cysts (horn cysts).
"stuck on" looking keratin-filled cysts. Dx? Seborrheic keratosis
What are common places with Seborrheic keratosis occur? Head, trunk, and extremities
Common skin benign neoplasm of older people. Seborrheic keratosis
Seborrheic keratosis is (+) for what clinical sign? Leser-Trélat sign
WHat is the Leser-Trelat sign? Sudden appearance of multiple seborrheic keratoses, indicating an underlying malignancy.
(+) Leser-Trélat sign. Dx? Seborrheic keratosis
Common name for Verrucae? Warts
What pathogen causes verrucae (warts)? Low-risk HPV strains
What is the description of verrucae? Soft, tan-colored, cauliflower-like papules
Soft, tan-colored, cauliflower-like papules. Verrucae
What is the result of epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and koilocytosis? Verrucae
What verrucae condition is associated with warts in the anus or genital? Condyloma acumintum
Which part of body does Condyloma acuminatum appear on? Anus and genitals
Common name of Urticaria Hives
What is urticaria? Pruritic wheals that form after mast cell degranulation
How urticaria characterized by? Superficial dermal edema and lymphatic channel dilation
Which skin condition is characterized with superficial dermal edema and lymphatic channel dilation? Urticaria
What skin condition is formed after mast cell degranulation? Urticaria
List of Vascular tumors of the skin: 1. Angiosarcoma 2. Bacillary angiomatosis 3. Cherry hemangioma 4. Cystic hygroma 5. Glomus tumor 6. Kaposi sarcoma 7. Pyogenic granuloma 8. Strawberry hemangioma
Rare blood vessel malignancy typically occurring in the head, neck, and breast areas, in elderly, on sun-exposed areas. Dx? Angiosarcoma
Angiosarcoma is: A rare blood vessel malignancy (vascular tumor of skin) that occurs in the head, neck, and breast aras of elderly in sun-exposed areas.
What are common associations to the development of Angiosarcomas? Radiation therapy and chronic postmastectomy lymphedema
Which vascular tumor of skin is highly associated with vinyl chloride and arsenic exposures? Hepatic angiosarcoma
A person with Hepatic angiosarcoma, is likely to have been exposed to what material? Vinyl chloride and arsenic
Hx of postmastectomy lymphedema and radiation therapy, raises suspicion of which vascular tumor of skin? Angiosarcoma
Which patients are often seen with Bacillary angiomatosis? AIDS patients
What is Bacillary angiomatosis? Benign capillary skin papules found in AIDS patients
Pathogen causative of Bacillary angiomatosis in AIDS patient? Bartonella spp
Bacillary angiomatosis is often mistaken by which other vascular skin tumor? Kaposi sarcoma
What is the distinguish infiltrate of Bacillary angiomatosis from Kaposi sarcoma? Bacillary angiomatosis has a NEUTROPHILIC infiltrate
What type of infiltrate is seen in Bacillary angiomatosis? Neutrophilic
Neutrophilic or Lymphocytic infiltrate in Bacillary angiomatosis? Neutrophilic
Neutrophils or Lymphocytic infiltrate in Kaposi sarcoma? Lymphocytic
Cherry hemangioma is: Benign capillary hemangioma of the elderly. Does not regress. Increase frequency with age
Benign capillary hemangioma of the elderly. Dx? Cherry hemangioma
Bening capillary hemangioma of infancy. Dx? Strawberry hemangioma
What is a Cystic hygroma? Cavernous lymphangioma of the neck
Cystic hygroma is highly associated with which condition? Turner syndrome
A patient with Turner syndrome is at high risk of developing which Vascular tumor of the skin? Cystic hygroma
Cavernous lymphangioma of the neck. Cystic hygroma
What is a Glomus tumor? Bening, painful, red-blue vascular skin tumor, commonly found under the fingernails
How does a Glomus tumor aries? From modified smooth muscle cells of the thermoregulatory glomus body
Benign, painful, red-blue tumor, commonly found under fingernails. Glomus tumor
Painful or Painless. Glomus tumor? Painful
What is Kaposi sarcoma? Endothelial malignancy most commonly of the skin, but also mouth, GI tract, and respiratory tract.
What are the viral associations of Kaposi sarcoma? HHV-8 and HIV
Other than the skin, what other areas may be affected, rarely, by Kaposi sarcoma? Mouth, GI tract, and respiratory tract
What condition may be mistaken instead of Kaposi sarcoma? Bacillary angiomatosis
Polypoid lobulated hemangioma that can ulcerate and bleed. Dx? Pyogenic granuloma
What are associations of Pyogenic granuloma development? Trauma and pregnancy
What is Pyogenic granuloma? Polypoid lobulated capillary hemangioma that can ulcerate and bleed.
What age is associated with Strawberry hemangioma? Infancy
Strawberry hemangioma features: 1. Appears in infancy 2. Grows rapidly 3. Spontaneous regression by 5-8 years old
At what is a Strawberry hemangioma commonly spontaneously regressed? 5-8 years old
List of BACTERIAL skin infections: 1. Impetigo 2. Erysipelas 3. Cellulitis 4. Abscess 5. Necrotizing fasciitis 6. Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome
What are the most common bacteria that cause Impetigo? S. aureus and S. pyogenes
What is impetigo? A very superficial skin infection; highly contagious, and honey-colored crusting, caused by S. aureus and/or S. pyogenes
Bullous impetigo: Impetigo + bullae caused by S. aureus
What structures of the skin are involved in the development of Erysipelas? Upper dermis and superficial lymphatics
What is the organism that causes Erysipelas? S. pyogenes
Infection involving the upper dermis and superficial lymphatics, due to a S. pyogenes infection. Erysipelas
How is Erysipela (infection) presented? Well-defined, raised demarcation between infected and normal skin
What is cellulitis? Acute, painful, spreading infection of deeper dermis and subcutaneous tissues
Which organism are often associated with Cellulitis development? S. aureus and S. pyogenes
How is the most common way that Cellulitis develops? Starts with skin from trauma or another infection
What is an abscess? Collection of pus from a walled-off infection within deeper layer of skin.
What is the most common organism that causes an skin abscess? S. aureus
What layers or parts of the skin are affected in Cellulitis? Deeper dermis and subcutaneous tissues
Deeper tissue injury, usually from anaerobic bacteria or S. pyogenes, which shows pain out of proportion to exam findings. Necrotizing fasciitis
What is the key finding or feature to identify and diagnose Necrotizing fasciitis? Pain may be out of proportion ito exam findings
Necrotizing fasciitis result in ----> Crepitus from methane and CO2 production
What gases are developed or associated in Necrotizing fasciitis? Methane and CO2 production
What important Necrotizing fasciitis feature is due to the production of Methane and CO2 gases? Crepitus
Bacterial skin conditions associated with "Flesh-eating bacteria" Necrotizing fasciitis
Clinical exam findings of Necrotizing fasciitis: 1. Pain out of proportion to exam 2. Crepitus 3. Bullae and a purple color to the skin
What is a skin infection that is considered a surgical emergency? Necrotizing fasciitis
What skin bacterial condition is due to an Exotoxin that destroys keratinocyte attachments in the S. granulosum only? Staphylococcal Scalded Skin syndrome
Which epidermal layer is affected in Staph Scalded Skin syndrome? Stratum Granulosum
How is Staphylococcal SS syndrome clinical presented? Fever and generalized erythematous rash with sloughing of the upper layer of epidermis that heals completely.
What sign is associated with Staphylococcal Scalded skin syndrome? (+) Nikolsky sign
What is the Nikolsky sign? Separation of epidermis upon manual stroking of skin
SSSS is seen in adults often with ___________________ ________________. Renal insufficiency
What is destroyed by Toxic epidermal necrolysis? Epidermal-dermal junction
List of Viral skin infections: 1. Herpes 2. Molluscum contagiosum 3. Varicella zoster virus 4. Hairy Leukoplakia
Which strains of herpes virus cause skin infection? HSV-1 and HSV-2
Common presentations of herpes skin infections: Herpes labialis, Herpes genitalis, and, Herpes whitlow
Herpes whitlow infection affects the _____________. Fingers
What is Molluscum contagiosum? Umbilicated papules caused by Poxvirus
Cna Molluscum contagiosum be sexually transmitted? Yes, although is mostly seen in children
What conditions are caused by Varicella zoster virus? Chickenpox and Shingles
How does Varicella present clinically? Multiple crops of lesions in various stages from vesicles to crusts
What is Zoster? Reactivation of the virus in dermatomal distribution
Reactivation of VZV in dermatomal distribution. Zoster
What is the key or classic rash distribution of reactivation of VZV? Dermatomal
Irregular, white, painless plaques on lateral tongue that cannot be scrapped off. Hairy leukoplakia
What virus is associated with Hairy leukoplakia? EBV
Which type of patients are most seen with Hairy leukoplakia? HIV-(+) and organ transplant patients
Unscrapable and precancerous white plaques on tongue? Hairy leukoplakia
List of Blistering skin disorders: 1. Pemphigus vulgaris 2. Bullous pemphigoid 3. Dermatitis herpetiformis 4. Erythema multiforme 5. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
What is Pemphigus vulgaris? Potentially fatal autoimmune skin disorder with IgG antibody against desmoglein.
What is desmoglein? Component of desmosomes, which connect keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum
What are findings of the immunofluorescence of Pemphigus vulgaris? Antibodies around epidermal cells in a reticular (net-like) pattern
Clinical features of Pemphigus vulgaris: Flaccid intraepidermal bullae caused by acantholysis; Oral mucosa is involved Type II hypersensitivity reaction
What type of hypersensitivity reaction is seen in Pemphigus vulgaris? Type II
Is Pemphigus vulgaris positive or negative for Nikolsky sign? (+) Nikolsky sign
How is the acantholysis described in Pemphigus vulgaris? Separation of keratinocytes, resembling a "row of tombstones".
Histological description of acantholysis in Pemphigus vulgaris "row of tombstones"
IM net-like (reticular) pattern. Pemphigus vulgaris or Bullous pemphigoid? Pemphigus vulgaris
What is more severe, Bullous pemphigoid or Pemphigus vulgaris? Pemphigus vulgaris
What is the cause of Bullous pemphigoid? Type II hypersensitivity reaction: involves IgG antibody against hemidesmosomes
What is the clinical profile of Bullous pemphigoid? Tense blisters containing eosinophils affect skin but space oral mucosa
Which, Bullous pemphigoid and Pemphigus vulgaris, spares oral mucosa? Bullous pemphigoid
What are the immunofluorescence findings in Bullous pemphigoid? Linear pattern at epidermal -dermal junction
Which blistering skin disorder is an autoimmune disorder that attacks the hemidesmosomes? Bullous pemphigoid
Tense blisters + no oral involvement + (-) Nikolsky sign Bullous pemphigoid
Immunoforce reveals a linear pattern at epidermal-dermal junction. Dx? Bullous pemphigoid
What causes Dermatitis herpetiformis? Deposits of IgA at tips of dermal papillae
What dermatological conditions are seen with Dermatitis herpetiformis? Pruritic papules, vesicles, and bullae, most often in the elbows
What autoimmune disease is associated with Dermatitis herpetiformis? Celiac disease
What is the common treatment for Dermatitis Herpetiformis? Dapsone and gluten-free diet
A kid gets severe stomach aches when consumes gluten-containing foods. What skin condition may be also present in the patient? Dermatitis herpetiformis
Deposits of IgA at tips of dermal papillae + Celiac disease. Dx of skin? Dermatitis herpetiformis
How is Erythema multiforme presented? Multiple types of lesions, such as macules, papules, vesicles, target lesions due to infection, drugs or autoimmune diseases.
What are some causative associations of Erythema multiforme? - Infeactions - Drugs - Cancers - Autoimmune disease
What infections are associated with Erythema multiforme? Mycoplasma pneumoniae and HSV
What drugs are associated with developing Erythema multiforme? Sulfa drugs, B-lactams, and Phenytoin
What are characteristics of Stevens-Johnson syndrome? Fever, bullae formation and necrosis, sloughing of skin at dermal-epidermal junction, and high mortality rate.
What is a more severe form of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)? Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)
What is the most common causative association for Stevens-Johnson syndrome? Adverse drug reaction
What is Acanthosis nigricans? Epidermal hyperplasia causing symmetric, hyperpigmented thickening of skin, especially in axilla and/or neck.
What areas of body are most affected by Acanthosis nigricans? Axilla and/or neck
What are associations with Acanthosis nigricans? 1. Insulin resistance 2. Visceral malignancy
Epidermal hyperplasia causing symmetric, hyperpigmented thickening of skin. Acanthosis nigricans
What is Actinic keratosis? Pre-malignant lesions caused by sun exposure.
How is Actinic keratosis presented? Small, rough, erythematous or brownish papules or plaques
Actinic keratosis raises risk for: Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin
What is Erythema nodosum? Painful, raised inflammatory lesions of subcutaneous fat (panniculitis), usually on anterior shins.
What are associated conditions of Erythema nodosum? Sarcoidosis, Coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, TB, streptococcal infections, leprosy, and inflammatory bowel disease.
What part of the body is most likely to be affected by Erythema nodosum? Anterior shins
Painful, raised inflammatory lesions of subcutaneous fat on the anterior shins. Dx? Erythema nodosum
What are the 6 P's of Lichen Planus? Pruritic Purple Polygonal Planar Papules lichen Planus
What virus is associated with Lichen planus? Hepatitis C
How is mucosal involvement in Lichen Planus presented clinically? Wickham striae (reticular white lines) and hypergranulosis
What is a key finding at the dermal-epidermal junction in Lichen Planus? Sawtooth infiltrate of lymphocytes
What are Wickham striae associated skin disorder? Lichen planus
"Herald patch" followed days later by other scaly erythematous plaques, often in a "Christmas tree" distribution on trunk. Dx? Pityriasis rosea
What skin condition is seen with pink plaques with collarette scale? Pityriasis rosea
"Christmas tree" distribution on trunk or erythematous plaques. Dx? Pityriasis rosea
Self-resolving in 6-8 weeks epidermal rash with "festive" distribution. Dx? Pityriasis rosea
What condition is first seen with a "Herald patch" and later with a very unique erythematous rash distribution? Pityriasis rosea
Acute cutaneous inflammatory reaction due to excessive UV radiation Sunburn
What is caused by a sunburn? DNA mutations, inducting apoptosis of keratinocytes
What is the result of the DNA mutations caused by Sunburns? Induction of apoptosis of keratinocytes
What are the two types of UV radiation? UVB and UVA
UVB is dominant in: Sunburn
UVA is dominant in : Tanning and photoaging
Increased exposure to UVA and UVB increase risk for: 1. Skin cancer 2. Impetigo
What is the most common example of a first degree burn? Sunburn
Which burn classification are: Painful, erythematous, and blanching? First- and Second-degree burns
What is the burn classification of a burn that is superficial, though epidermis only? First-degree burn
Second-degree burn is described as: Partial-thickness burn though epidermis and dermis
In a second-degree burn the skin is: Blistered and usually heals without scarring
Description of the a Third-degree burn: Full-thickness burn thought epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis
If the burn goes through all 3 main layers of the skin, it si a: Third-degree burn
Description of the skin in a Third-degree burn? Skin scars with wound healing
How is a Third-degree burn described clinically? Painless, waxy or leathery appearance, non-blanching
What is the most common type of skin cancer? Basal cell carcinoma
What are common physical features of Basal cell carcinoma? Waxy, pink, pearly nodules, commonly with telangiectasias, rolled borders, and central crusting or ulceration
Which type of skin cancer appears at times with non-healing ulcers with infiltrating or as a scaling plaque Basal cell carcinoma
What is the key characteristic of the nuclei of Basal cell carcinoma? Palisading
Which type of skin cancer is seen with "palisading" nuclei? Basal cell carcinoma
Which skin cancer is seen with telangiectasias? Basal cell carcinoma
Waxy, pink, pearly nodules, commonly with telangiectasias, rolled borders, and central crusting or ulceration. Dx? Basal cell carcinoma
Which areas of body are often found with BCC? Sun-exposed areas
Which skin cancer is locally invasive, rarely metastasis, and palisading nuclei? Basal cell carcinoma
What is the second most common skin cancer? Squamous cell carcinoma
How is Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin development associated with? Excessive exposure to sunlight, immunosuppression, chronically draining sinuses and occasionally arsenic exposure.
What body areas are most often seen with SCC of skin? Face, lower lop, ears, and hands
Which lip, lower or upper, is often affected by SCC of skin? Lower lip
What is a common clinical characteristic of SCC of skin? Ulcerative red lesion with frequent scale
Which skin cancer is seen with ulcerative red lesions with frequent scale? Squamous cell carcinoma
What are the key histologic findings of Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin? Keratin "pearls"
Which skin cancer is often seen with histological finding of keratin "pearls"? Squamous cell carcinoma
What are two conditions of the skin often seen in SCC of skin? 1. Actinic keratosis 2. Keratoacanthoma
What is Actinic keratosis? A scaly plaque, is a precursor to squamous cell carcinoma
What is Keratoacanthoma? Variant of SCC of skin, that grows rapidly (4-6 weeks) and may regress spontaneously over months
What is a common skin tumor with a significant risk of metastasis? Melanoma
What are the main three types of skin cancer? 1. Basal cell carcinoma 2. Squamous cell carcinoma 3. Melanoma
What is the main tumor maker for melanoma? S-100
(+) S-100. Dx? Melanoma
What condition of Melanoma correlates with risk of metastasis? Depth of tumor (Breslow thickness)
What is the name given of depth of tumor of Melanoma? Breslow thickness
What are the ABCDE of Melanoma? Asymmetry Border irregularity Color variation Diameter > 6mm Evolution over time
What are the 4 types of Melanoma? - Superficial spreading - Nodular - Lentigo maligna - Acral lentiginous
Melanoma acral lentiginous is most common among which populations? African-Americans and Asian
What is the common mutation associated with Melanoma development? BRAF kinase
What is the primary treatment of Melanoma? Excision with appropriately wide margins
Which type of Melanoma is benefited with treatment with Vemurafenib? Melanoma with a BRAF V600E mutation
What is the MOA of Vemurafenib? BRAF kinase inhibitor
Created by: rakomi
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