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WGeo Sem A Exam Rev

World Geography Semester A Exam Review Vocabulary

Physical geography the spatial study of natural phenomena that make up the environment, such as rivers, mountains, landforms, weather, climate, soils, plants, and any other physical aspects of the Earth’s surface.
cultural landscape those parts of the Earth’s surface that have been altered or created by humans.
equinox When days and nights are of equal length
Functional regions boundaries related to a specific activity within a given area.
theory of plate tectonics the Earth’s crust is divided into more than a dozen floating plates that shift a few inches each year.
Plateaus elevated plains
archipelago a group of islands closely scattered in a body of water.
isthmus a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas of land across an expanse of water by which they are otherwise separated
Biodiversity the variety of life in a biome, ecosystem, or habitat.
orographic effect occurs when the flow of air is interrupted by a hill or mountain
tropics the area situated between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.
High-latitude climates Climate that receives the least direct sunlight.
Constitutional monarchy A government system in which a king or queen is the figurehead symbol of national unity, but holds very little real power.
Authoritarianism a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms
Representative democracy a government system in which citizens elect representatives to act on their behalf.
capitalism An economic system in which the people own the property and businesses and the government provides regulations.
communism An economic system in which the government decides what to make, how much to charge, what to pay workers, and who does what job.
socialism An economic system that has higher taxes to pay for more government programs.
Primary sector The sector of the economy that has raw materials.
Secondary sector The sector of the economy that has manufacturing.
Tertiary sector The sector of the economy that has stores.
Quaternary sector The sector of the economy that has schools.
Rural-to-urban shift occurs when people move from rural agricultural areas to the cities for employment or in search of a better life.
Less developed Rating that indicates a country is one of the world’s poorest.
newly industrialized Rating that indicates economic growth as a result of industrialization that is having a great impact on the society.
more developed Rating that indicates a robust economy and advanced technology.
gross domestic product the total of all goods and services produced inside a country, valued in dollars.
Birth rate the total number of live births per 1,000 people in a country.
infant mortality rate the number of deaths under one year of age occurring during a year, per 1,000 live births.
Literacy rate The number of people who can read and write in a population.
emigrants People who leave a country
immigrants People entering a new country
pull factors Things that make people want to move to a country
push factors things that make people want to leave a country
Great Continental Divide a line of mountains and rivers that divide the Americas.
cordillera a ropelike string of mountains extending across the landscape.
natural borders Winding, curved borders made from natural forms such as rivers.
Sierra Nevada A major mountain range of western North America, running along the eastern edge of the U.S. state of California
Appalachian Mountains a system of mountains in eastern North America.
Rio Grande River A river that divides the U.S. from Mexico.
Sun Belt An area of southern U.S. with a lower latitude and a warmer climate.
Manifest Destiny the belief of some Americans that the new nation was divinely predestined to expand westward across the continent.
federal government a system of dividing up power between a central national government and local state governments.
republic type of democracy, run by elected leaders and organized into a system of states under a federal government
separation of power Concept that no one group in government has too much power
checks and balances System to keep the government as a whole fair and equitable
Legislative Branch a marketing strategy that uses people's personal data on social media to show them specific advertisements.
popular vote the votes of the citizens
gerrymandering The drawing of voting district maps to favor one party
Blue collar Workers performing manual labor at an hourly wage
White collar Office workers and managers who organize the blue collar workers.
sharing economy economic system in which assets or services are shared between private individuals, either free or for a fee, typically by means of the Internet.
offshoring The practice of basing some of a company's activities overseas to take advantage of lower costs
Subsistence farming producing just enough to survive, leaving little to trade for other things.
commercial farms Agriculture owned by companies that aim to make a profit
Hydraulic fracturing a process in which rock is fractured by pressurized liquid, resulting in oil and natural gas that can be harvested.
Non-renewable resources Energy resources that can’t be replaced within the human lifespan
Renewable resource a natural resource which can be replenished to replace the portion depleted by usage.
refugee A person who is fleeing their home country
Ring of Fire an area of heavy tectonic plate activity that is responsible for shaping many of Latin America's landforms
llanos A grassland area of South America
Día de los Muertos a Mexican holiday celebrated throughout the country on November 1st and 2nd
Repatriation the return of a person to their home country
Bracero A manual laborer brought to the U.S. to from Mexico
Free market economy supply and demand control activities, private companies/citizens own much of the economy, and there is little or no government control
Iron Curtain A separation of Western and Eastern Europe
Colonialism acquiring and settling another land with the goal of economic dominance
Specialization when a person or company focuses on one type of product or service and becomes efficient at doing so
Strait a channel of water that lies between two land masses.
Fjord a valley that was formed from glaciation
Peninsula portions of land mostly surrounded by water.
Created by: joann.roe
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