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Musculoskeletal

FA complete review Anatomy and Physiology Part II

QuestionAnswer
List of Lower Extremity nerves: 1. Iliohypogastric 2. Genitofemoral 3. Lateral femoral cutaneous 4. Obturator 5. Femoral 6. Sciatic 7. Common peroneal 8. Tibial 9. Superior gluteal 10. Inferior gluteal 11. Pudendal
What are the nerve roots of the Iliohypogastric nerve? T12-L1
Which lower extremity nerve has roots T12-L1? Iliohypogastric
What is the sensory innervation of the Iliohypogastric nerve? Suprapubic region
What nerve provides sensory innervation to the Suprapubic region? Iliohypogastric
What is the motor innervation of the Iliohypogastric nerve? Transversus abdominis and Internal oblique
What lower extremity nerve provide motor innervation to the Transversus abdominis and internal oblique? Iliohypogastric
Which muscles are innervated by the motor part of the Iliohypogastric nerve? Transversus abdominis and Internal oblique
What is a common cause of injury to the Iliohypogastric nerve? Abdominal surgery
A patient undergoing abdominal surgery may have lesion to which lower extremity nerve? Iliohypogastric
What is the common clinical presentation of Iliohypogastric nerve lesion? Burning or tingling pain in surgical incision site radiation to inguinal and suprapubic region
Burning/tingling pain in abdominal surgical incision radiating to inguinal and suprapubic region. What nerve is likely damaged? Iliohypogastric
What are the nerves roots of Genitofemoral nerve? L1-L2
Which lower extremity nerve has roots L1-L2? Genitofemoral
What is the sensory innervation of the Genitofemoral nerve? Scrotum/labia majora, medial thigh
The medial thigh, scrotum(males) and labia major (females) is sensory innervated by the ________________ nerve. Genitofemoral
What is the motor (muscle) innervation of the Genitofemoral nerve? Cremaster
The Cremaster muscle is innervated by the ________________ nerve. Genitofemoral
What type of surgery may result in Genitofemoral nerve lesion? Laparoscopic surgery
What is the common presentation of Genitofemoral nerve damage or injury? - Decreased anterior thigh sensation beneath inguinal ligament - Absent cremasteric reflex
An absent Cremasteric reflex may be due to what nerve injury? Genitofemoral
Diminished anterior thigh sensation beneath the inguinal ligament is often presented in cases of: Genitofemoral nerve injury
Does the Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve has sensory, motor, or both, innervation? Only sensory
What is the sensory innervation of ht Lateral Femoral cutaneous nerve? Anterior and lateral thigh
Which nerve provides cutaneous sensory information to the anterior and lateral thigh? Lateral Femoral Cutaneous
What are the nerve roots of the Lateral Femoral Cutaneous nerve? L2-L3
Damage to roots L2-L3 will cause what type of sensory deficits? Decreased anterior and lateral thigh sensation
What are examples or conditions that cause an injury or deficit in Lateral femoral cutaneous sensory functioning? Thigh clothing, Obesity, Pregnancy, and pelvic procedures
What are the nerve roots of the Obturator nerve? L2-L4
Which nerve has nerve roots L2-L4? Obturator
What is the sensory innervation of the Obturator nerve? Medial thigh
What part of the thigh does the Obturator nerve provide sensory innervation? Medial thigh
List of motor (muscle) innervation of the Obturator nerve: 1. Obturator externus 2. Adductor longus 3. Adductor brevis 4. Gracilis 5. Pectineus 6. Adductor magnus
The adductor longus and Adductor brevis, both have motor innervation from which lower extremity nerve? Obturator
Which are the nerve roots of the nerve that provides innervation to the Gracilis, Pectineus, and adductor magnus? L2-L4
What procedure may result in Obturator nerve injury? Pelvic surgery
What is the presentation of Obturator nerve injury? Decreased thigh sensation (medial) and adduction
Which thigh movement is decreased with Obturator nerve injury? Adduction
A decreased in adduction, may be due to _______________ nerve damage. Obturator
Which lower extremity nerves provide medial thigh sensory innervation? Obturator, and Genitofemoral nerves
What are the nerve roots of the Femoral nerve? L2-L4
Which two important lower extremities have the same nerve roots, L2-L4? Obturator and Femoral nerves
What is the sensory innervation of the Femoral nerve? Anterior thigh and medial leg
Anterior thing and medial leg receive sensory innervation/information from which lower extremity nerve? Femoral
What is the motor innervation of the Femoral nerve? Quadriceps, iliacus, pectineus, and sartorius
Which lower extremity muscles are innervated by the Femoral nerve? Quadriceps, iliacus, pectineus, and sartorius
Which nerve provides motor innervation to the quadriceps? Femoral
What is the most common cause of Femoral nerve injury? Pelvic fracture
Which nerve may be injured in a Pelvic fracture? Femoral
What is the clinical presentation of Femoral nerve injury? Decrease in; 1. Thigh flexion 2. Leg extension
Which tigh movement is diminished in a Femoral nerve injury? Flexion
A person with difficulty flexing the thin and unable to extend leg, may have what type of nerve injury? Femoral nerve injury
What are the nerve roots of the Sciatic nerve? L4-S3
Which lower extremity nerve has roots L4-S3? Sciatic
What type of innervation is provided by the Sciatic nerve, motor, sensory, or both? Only Motor
What is the motor innervation of the Sciatic nerve? Semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, and adductor magnus
Which nerve provides motor innervation to the Semitendinosus and Semimembranosus muscles of the leg? Sciatic
Biceps femoris and Adductor magnus are both innervated by the _____________ nerve. Sciatic
What are common causes for Sciatic nerve injury? Herniated disc, and posterior hip dislocation
What is a feature or important anatomical note of the Sciatic nerve? Splits into Common Peroneal and Tibial nerves
The common Peroneal and the _________________ nerve , are both divisions of the Sciatic nerve. Tibial
What are the two divisions (split) of the Sciatic nerve? Common Peroneal and Tibial nerves
Which are the nerve roots of the Common Peroneal nerve? L4-S2
Which nerve has the nerve roots L4-S2? Common Peroneal
What are the two anatomic divisions of the Common Peroneal nerve? 1. Superficial Peroneal nerve 2. Deep Peroneal nerve
What are the sensory innervation of the Superficial Peroneal nerve? Dorsum of foot
What part of the dorsum of the foot, does the Superficial Peroneal nerve, does not provide sensory innervation? Webspace between hallux and 2nd digit
The dorsum of foot (excepto between the 2nd digit and hallux), has it sensory innervation provided by what nerve? Superficial Peroneal nerve
What is the motor innervation of the Superficial Peroneal nerve? Peroneus longus and brevis
What is the association between the Dorsum of foot and Peroneus longus and brevis? Superficial Peroneal sensory and motor (respectively) innervation
What is the sensory innervation of the Deep Peroneal nerve? Webspace between hallux and 2nd digit
What is the motor innervation of Deep Peroneal nerve? Tibialis anterior
Which nerve provides motor innervation to the Tibialis anterior? Deep Peroneal nerve
What nerve provides sensory information to the webspace between the 2nd digit and the hallux? Deep Peroneal nerve
What are common causes of Common Peroneal nerve injury? 1. Trauma or Compression of lateral aspect of leg 2. Fibular neck fracture
Which lower extremity nerve is at risk of injury in a Fibular neck fracture? Common Peroneal
Which foot movements are performed by the Common Peroneal nerve? Foot Eversion and Dorsiflexion
What is the sensory deficit seen in Peroneal nerve damage? Dorsum of foot
What nerve is injured in Foot drop? Common Peroneal
What is Foot drop? Inverted and plantarflex at rest, loss of eversion and dorsiflexion
What kind of gait is seen in Foot Drop? Steppage gait
Foot is inverted and plantarflex while at rest, and patient is unable to evert and/or dorsiflex foot. Dx? Foot drop
Foot drop, means _____________________ nerve damage. Common Peroneal
What are the nerve roots of the Tibial nerve? L4-S3
Which nerve of the lower extremity has roots L4-S3? Tibial
What is the sensory innervation of the Tibial nerve? Sole of foot
What is the motor innervation of the Tibial nerve? - Long head of Biceps femoris - Triceps surae - Plantaris - Popliteus - Flexor muscles of the foot
The bottom part of the foot, sole, is innervated sensory by the ________ nerve. Tibial
What are causes of Tibial nerve damage? Knee trauma, Baker cyst (proximal lesion), Tarsal tunnel syndrome (distal lesion)
A person with Tarsal tunnel syndrome, may suffer of what nerve damage? Tibial
What is the function of the Tibial nerve? Foot inversion and Plantarflexion
What are features of Tibial nerve damage? 1. Inability to curl toes and loss os sensation on sole 2. Foot everted at rest with loss of inversion and plantarflexion
A patient unable to feel the flood with the sole of feet, may have _______________ nerve damage. Tibial
What kind of nerve injury is suspected if patient is with foot everted at rest, and unable to invert or plantar-flex foot? Tibial
What is the motor innervation of the Superior gluteal nerve? Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor fascia latae
What are the nerve roots of Superior gluteal nerve? L4-S1
Which nerve has nerve roots L4-S1? Superior gluteal
What is the most common cause of Superior Gluteal nerve injury? IM injection to the superomedial gluteal region, instead of the anterolateral region.
What is the most common feature of a Superior Gluteal nerve injury? Trendelenburg sign/gait
What nerve damage leads to Trendelenburg gait? Superior gluteal nerve injury
Description of the Trendelenburg gait/sign: Pelvis tilts because weight-bearing leg cannot maintain alignment of pelvis through hip abduction
The tilt of the pelvis due to the leg not been able to maintain alignment of pelvis while hip is abducted. Trendelenburg sign/gait
In Trendelenburg gait the lesion is: 1. Contralateral to the side of the hip that drops 2. Ipsilateral to extremity on which patient stands
If the lesion to the Superior Gluteal nerve, which causes developmental Trendelenburg gait, is to the right side the: Hip will drop to the left, while the patient stands on the right leg
Trendelenburg gait, suspect what nerve to be injured? Superior gluteal
What are the nerve roots of the Inferior gluteal nerve? L5-S2
Which lower extremity nerve has roots L5 to S2? Inferior gluteal
What is the motor innervation of the Inferior Gluteal nerve? Gluteus maximus
The Gluteus maximus is innervated by the _____________________ nerve. Inferior gluteal
Which gluteal muscles are innervated by the Superior gluteal nerve? Gluteus medius and gluteus minimus
Lack of motor innervation to the gluteus medius and minimus, will be likely due to damage to the inferior or superior gluteal nerve? Superior gluteal
If the gluteus maximus is deficient in movement, it will probably be due to Inferior or Superior gluteal nerve damage? Inferior gluteal
What is the clinical presentation of Inferior gluteal nerve injury? 1. Difficulty climbing stairs 2. Difficulty rising from seated position 3. Loss of hip extension
What hip movement is affected by an injured Inferior gluteal nerve? Hip extension
What is the MCC of Inferior gluteal nerve injury? Posterior hip dislocation
Posterior hip dislocation is the MCC of what type of nerve injury? Inferior gluteal
What are the nerve roots of the Pudendal nerve? S2-S4
Which lower extremity nerve has roots S2 - S4? Pudendal
What is the sensory innervation of the Pudendal nerve? Perineum
What is the motor innervation of the Pudendal nerve? External urethral and anal sphincters
What is the MCC of injury to the Pudendal nerve? Stretch injury during childbirth
Complicated childbirth can cause injury to which lower extremity nerve? Pudendal
What are the clinical characteristics of Pudendal nerve damage? 1. Decreased sensation in perineum and genital area 2. May cause fecal or urinary incontinence
The Pudendal nerve may be blocked in childbirth, to block pain. What landmark is used to apply the anesthetic injection? Ischial spine
What is the association between the Ischial spine and the Pudendal nerve? During childbirth, the Pudendal nerve can be blocked by injection anestesia using the Ischial spine as anatomical landmark.
Which are the abductors of the hip? Gluteus medius and Gluteus minimus
What hip action or movement is performed by the Gluteus minimus and medius? Abduction
List of adductor hip muscles: Adductor magnus, Adductor longus, and Adductor brevis
Adductor _____________, ____________, and _________________, perform hip adduction. Magnus, Longus, and Brevis
Which are the Extensor hip muscles? Gluteus maximus, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus
What action of the hip is performed by the Gluteus maximus? Hip extension
The Gluteus maximus, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus, are the hip ________________. Extensors
What hip action may be affected by injury to the G. maximus? Hip extension
List of Flexor hip muscles: 1. Iliopsoas, 2. Rectus femoris 3. Tensor fascia lata 4. Pectineus 5. Sartorius
Which hip muscles produce internal rotation? Gluteus medius, Gluteus minimus, and Tensor fascia latae
What two hip action or movements are performed by the G. medius and minimus? Abduction and internal rotation
What are the muscles of the hip that perform External rotation? Iliopsoas, Gluteus maximus, Piriformis,and Obturator
What hip action is performed by the G. maximus, Iliopsoas, Piriformis and Obturator muscles? External rotation
Piriformis and Obturator muscles are involved in which hip movement or action? External rotation
List of common Musculoskeletal conditions: 1. Iliotibial band syndrome 2. Medial Tibial stress syndrome 3. Limb compartment syndrome 4. Plantar fasciitis 5. De Quervain tenosynovitis 6. Ganglion cyst
What musculoskeletal condition is associated primarily with "runners"? Iliotibial band syndrome
Overuse injury o lateral knee that occurs primarily in runners. Dx? Iliotibial band syndrome
What causes the pain in Iliotibial band syndrome? Secondary to fricito of iliotibial band against lateral femoral epicondyle
What is a more common name for Medial tibial stress syndrome? Shin splints
What are "Shin splints"? Common cause of shin pain an diffuse tenderness in runes and military recruits
What is the cause of Medial tibial stress syndrome? Bone resorption that outpaces bone formation in tibial cortex
Shin pain and diffuse tenderness, is the basis of shih musculoskeletal condition? Medial tibial stress syndrome
What is Limb compartment syndrome? Increase pressure within a fascial compartment of a limb lead to venous outflow obstruction an arteriolar collapse which causes anoxia and necrosis
What is the pressure gradient in order to consider limb compartment syndrome? Compartment pressure to diastolic blood pressure gradient of <30 mmHg.
What are some of the causes of Limb Compartment syndrome? Long bone fractures, reperfusion injury, animal venoms.
What are clinical symptoms of Limb Compartment syndrome? - Severe pain and tense, swollen compartments with limb flexion - Motor deficits are late sign or irreversible muscle and nerve damage
The motor deficits shown in Limb Compartment syndrome indicate: Late deficits are indicative of irreversible muscle and nerve damage
What limb action/movement elicits pain in Limb Compartment syndrome? Flexión
What is Plantar Fasciitis? Inflammation of plantar aponeurosis characterized by heel pain an tenderness
Heel pain and tenderness, especially severe in the morning and after extended periods of inactivity. Dx? Plantar fasciitis
Inflammation of plantar aponeurosis causing heel pain and tenderness. Plantar fasciitis
Noninflammatory thevenin of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons De Quervain tenosynovitis
What is the characteristic pain in De Quervain tenosynovitis? Pain or tenerse at radial styloid
Pain at radial styloid often indicates which condition? De Quervain tenosynovitis
(+) Finkelstein test. Dx? De Quervain tenosynovitis
What is the Finkelstein test? (+) when pain at radial styloid is elicited with active or passive stretch of thumb tendons
What is a Ganglion cyst? Fluid-filled swelling overlying joint or tendon sheath, most commonly at dorsal side of wrist
Where is the most common location for a Ganglion cyst? Dorsal side of wrist
What is the most common way for the arisal or development of a Ganglion cyst? Herniation of dense connective tissue
The herniation of dense connective tissue at the dorsal side of wrist often lead to development of: Ganglion cyst
Fluid-filled swelling overlying joint or tendon sheath. Dx? Ganglion cyst
What are the Lumbosacral radiculopathy signs? Paraesthesia and weakness related to specific lumbosacral spinal nerves.
What causes Lumbosacral radiculopathy? Intervertebral disc herniates posterolaterally through annulus fibrosus into central canal due to thin posterior longitudinal ligament and thieche anterior longitudinal ligament along midline of vertebral bodies.
What is the common distribution or affection of the nerve affected in Lumbosacral radiculopathy? It affects below the level of herniation
Which are the most common lumbosacral radiculopathy disc levels? 1. L3-L4 2. L4-L5 3. L5-S1
In L3-L4 lumbosacral radiculopathy, which nerve is affected? L4
What are the clinical signs of L3-L4 Lumbosacral Radiculopathy? Weakness of knee extension and, decreased patellar reflex
What is the main reflex affected or diminished in L3-L4 Radiculopathy? Patellar reflex
What are the clinical signs of L4-L5 Radiculopathy? 1. Weakness of dorsiflexion 2. Difficulty in heel walking
What are the most significant signs of L5-S1 Radiculopathy? 1. Weakness of plantar flexion 2. Difficulty in toe walking 3. Decreased Achilles reflex
What reflex is affected in L5-S1 Radiculopathy? Achilles reflex
What nerve and artery are paired in the Axilla/ lateral thorax? Nerve - Long Thoracic Artery - Lateral Thoracic
Which are the neurovascular pairing are at the surgical neck of humerus? Axillary nerve and Posterior circumflex artery
Neurovascular pairing at the Midshaft of humerus? Radial nerve and Deep brachial artery
Median nerve and Brachial artery are paired at what location? Distal humerus/cubital fossa
What nerve and artery are paired at the Popliteal fossa? Tibial nerve and Popliteal artery
Neurovascular pairing at the Posterior to medial malleolus? Tibial nerve and Posterior tibial artery
What are T-tubules? Extensions of plasma membrane in contact with the sarcoplasmic reticulum
Extension of plasma membrane in contact with the sarcoplasmic reticulum. T-tubules
What is the role of T-tubules in the motorneuron action potential to muscle contraction? Allows coordination of contraction of striated muscles
Which structure allows the coordination of the of striated muscles? T-tubules
What is the 1st step in striated muscle contraction process? AP opens presynaptic voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, inducing ACh release
AP opens presynaptic voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, inducing ACh release 1st Step of striated muscle contraction
What follows the presynaptic release of ACh in striated muscle contraction? Postsynaptic ACh binding lead to muscle cell depolarization at the motor end plate
Postsynaptic acetylcholine binds to receptors causing cell depolarization at the motor end plate. 2nd step of striated muscle contraction
What structure allows for the depolarization (striated muscle contraction) to travel over the entire cell and deep into the muscle? T-tubules
What is the 3rd step of striated muscle contraction? Cell depolarization travels along the entire cell and deep into the muscle via the T-tubules
What does the striated muscle membrane depolarization cause to the sensitive dihydropyridine receptor? Conformation changes which allows to be coupled with ryanodine receptor --> Ca2+ release from the SR into the cytoplasm
What is the result of coupled Ryanodine receptor after DHPR conformational changes? Ca2+ release from Sarcoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm
What component usually blocks Myosin-biding sites on the actin filaments, prior to Ca2+ arrival from SR? Tropomyosin
What is the role or function of Tropomyosin? Block Myosin-binding sites on actin filament
Ca2+ released by the SR, binds to _______________ in order to expose Myosin-binding site on actin filament. Troponin C
Ca2+ binding to Troponin C (TnC) causes ----> Shifting tropomyosin to expose the myosin-binding sites
What does the Ca-Tn- induced myosin-binding site exposures causes? Myosin head strongly binds to actin forming a crossbridge
What is formed by the binding of Myosin head and Actin during striated muscle contraction? Crossbridge
What is release upon formation of Myosin-Actin crossbridge? Phosphate (Pi)
What initiates the Power stroke? The release of Pi as the actin-myosin crossbridge is formed
What is initiated by the Myosin-Actin crossbridge release of Pi? Power stroke
How is force produced in the Power stroke? Myosin pulls on the thin filament, leading to muscle shortening
How which bands are involved in muscle shortening? Shortening of H and I bands and between Z lines
HIZ shrinkage? Mnemonic used to recall the H and I bands and between Z lines get shrunk during muscle contraction
Which band always remains the same length in muscle contraction? A band
What is released at the end of the Power stroke? ADP
ADP is released at: The end of the Power stroke
How is the Myosin head detached from actin filament? By the binding of new ATP
What happens to Ca2+ when Myosin head is detached from the actin filament? Re-sequestered
ATP hydrolysis into ADP and Pi results in: Myosin head returning to high-energy position (cocked)
In muscle contraction, the Myosin head can keep binding to new site on actin to form a crossbridge as long as: Ca2+ remains available
What are the two types of muscle fibers? Type 1 muscle and Type 2 muscle
Which muscle fibers are "slow twitch"? Type 1 muscle fiber
Which muscle fibers are "red" fibers? Type 1 muscle fiber
What are the Type 1 muscle fibers? Slow twitch; red fibers resulting from increased mitochondria and myoglobin concentration --> sustained contraction
What type of exercise results in elevated levels of Type 1 muscle fibers? Endurance training
A marathon runner or cyclist, will likely have higher amounts of Type 1 or Type 2 muscle fibers? Type 1 muscle fiber
Which type of muscle fiber has increased amounts of mitochondria and myoglobin concentration? Type 1 muscle fiber
Which type of muscle fibers are associated with increased oxidative phosphorylation? Type 1 muscle fiber
Which type of muscle fiber produces a sustained contraction? Type 1 muscle fiber
Type 2 muscle fibers are fast or slow twitch? Fast twitch
What color are denominated the Type 2 muscle fibers? White
Which muscle fibers are of fast twitch and white? Type 2 muscle fiber
Which muscle fiber is with low mitochondria and myoglobin concentration? Type 2 muscle fiber
Which muscle fiber type is associated with increased anaerobic glycolysis? Type 2 muscle fiber
What exercises increase the proportion of Type 2 muscle fibers? Weight/resistance training, and sprinting
A bodybuilder will have higher proportion of Type 1 or Type 2 muscle fibers? Type 2 muscle fiber
A 100-m sprinter has elevated proportion of Type ____ muscle fiber. Type 2 muscle fiber
Nitric oxide is stimulates smooth muscle contraction or relaxation? Relaxation
What stimulates smooth muscle contraction? Elevated levels of Ca2+
Which kinase, MLCK or MLCP, is involved in smooth muscle contraction? MLCK
Which kinase, MLCK or MLCP, is involved in smooth muscle relaxation? MLCP
How is Ca2+ possible to enter the smooth muscle cell? Using L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels
After, Ca2+ enters via L-type voltage-gated Calcium channels, the smooth muscle cell, it forms: Calcium - Calmodulin complex
Which enzyme reacts with the Ca2+--Calmodulin complex during smooth muscle contraction? MLCK
L-arginine + NO synthase in the endothelial cells yield --> Nitric oxide
How does NO enter the smooth muscle cell? NO diffusion
What are the two types of bone formation? 1. Endochondral ossification 2. Membranous ossification
Which bones are formed via endochondral ossification? Bones of axial skeleton, appendicular skeleton, and base of skull
Which bones are formed via membranous ossification? Bones of calvarium, facial bones, and clavicle
The bones of the face, are formed via ______________ ossification. Membranous ossification
The axial skeleton is formed via _________________ ossification. Endochondral ossification
Woven bone formed directly without cartilage. Membranous ossification
What is the form by which endochondral ossification occurs? Cartilaginous model of bone is first made by chondrocytes. Osteoclast and osteoblasts later replace with woven bone and then remodel to lamellar bone
Which type of bone formation starts with cartilage model? Endochondral ossification
Cells that create cartilage. Chondrocytes
What instances in adults lead to formation of woven bones? After fractures and in Paget disease of bone
Defective Endochondral ossification leads to which important condition? Achondroplasia
What is the defective form of bone formation in Achondroplasia? Endochondral ossification
What is the end result of healthy bone formation? Lamellar bone
Is Lamellar bone, the initial or final type of bone maturation? Final
Bones in extremities is made via what type of bone formation? Endochondral ossification
Builds bone by secreting collagen and catalyzing mineralization in alkaline environment via ALP. Osteoblast
Where do osteoblasts differentiate from mesenchymal stem cells? Periosteum
What can be used to measure the activity of Osteoblast? 1. Bone ALP 2. Osteocalcin 3. Propeptides of type I collagen
Which bone cells build bone? Osteoblast
Which bone cell dissolve or destroy bone? Osteoclast
Dissolves bone by secreting H+ and collagenases Osteoclast
What bone cell differentiation from a fusion of monocyte/macrophage lineage? Osteoclast
What important receptors are found on osteoclasts? RANK receptors
What stimulates the RANK receptors on osteoclasts RANKL
RANK-L is secreted by: Osteoblast
What blocks RANK receptors on osteoclasts? OPG (osteoprotegerin)
What is an important RANKL decoy receptor? OPG (osteoprotegerin)
What is the result of RANK receptor on osteoblasts blockage? Decreased osteoclast activity
What is secreted by Osteoclasts in order to dissolve (crush) bone? H+ and collagenases
What is secreted by Osteoblasts? Collagen
Collagen is secreted by which bone cell? Osteoblast
Osteoblast work in acidic or alkaline environments? Alkaline
What is a key enzyme for osteoblast activity? ALP
What is the effect of low PTH levels on osteoblasts and osteoclasts? Anabolic effects (building bone)
Chronic high levels of PTH has what type of effects of bone cells? Catabolic effects, duchas osteitis fibrosa cystica
What is a common condition that leads to Osteitis fibrosa cystica? Primary hyperparathyroidism
Which PTH condition is associated with chronic levels of PTH leading to catabolic effects on osteoblasts and osteoclasts? Primary hyperparathyroidism
What is the role of estrogen on bone formation? Inhibits apoptosis in bone-forming osteoblast and induces apoptosis in bone-resorbing osteoclasts.
What is the effect of Estrogen on Osteoblasts? Inhibition of apoptosis
What is the effect of Estrogen on Osteoclasts? Promote apoptosis
_________________ causes closure of epiphyseal plate during puberty. Estrogen
Estrogen deficiency leads to: Increase cycles of remodeling and bone resorption with increases the risk of osteoporosis.
Estrogen excess or deficiency lead to postmenopausal osteoporosis? Estrogen deficiency
How does the deficiency of estrogen cause increase risk of developing osteoporosis? Increase cycles of remodeling and bone resorption
Created by: rakomi
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