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RENAL

step 1 uworld amboss

QuestionAnswer
Secondary changes in nephrotic? Losing a lot of protein makes the liver compensate making more of everything specially = lipids and proteins (increase Lipoprotein synthesis)
Chronic kidney disease and carpal spasm? Reduce the excretion of phosphorus causing hyperphosphatemia induction hypocalcemia CKD decrease 1-alphahydroxylase --> reduces 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) leading to reduce calcium absorption Hypocalcemia --> carpal spasm
Which cells produces erythropoietin? Peritubular fibroblasts in renal cortex
PSGN? Skin infxn Type III hypersensitivity Humps Granular deposition with IgG and C3 (immune-complex) in IMF
Muscarinic in bladder? Detrusor contraction makes pee go out
High osmolality Concentrated
Low osmolality Diluted
Adverse effect of carbamazepine? SIADH Hyponatremia
moa of carbamazepine Block Na+ channels
Anuria (no pee) and suprapubic fullness (distended bladder) diagnosis and causes? Acute urinary retention -bladder outlet obstruction (urethral compression due to BPH) -medications (anticholinergic) -neurologic dysfunction: diabetic neuropathy or spinal cord injury
Interstitial nephritis symptoms? Usually after introduction of new medication accompanied by FEVER and RASH, OLIGURIA
What anatomic layer a suprapubic cystostomy pierce? Anterior abdominal aponeurosis
Pt with upper resp infx, dyspnea, edema, S3 --> decompensated heart failure. Low cardiac output Complications? Renal decompensation (cardiorenal syndrome) activates RAAS and sympathetic nervous system --> increase proximal tubular sodium reabsorption
Struvite stones, staghorn calculus (magnesium ammonium phosphate)? Hydrolysis of urea release ammonia alkalinizing the urine pH > 7 Urease producing organisms: proteus, klebsiella
urine Labs in diabetic ketoacidosis? Decrease bicarb = due to increase reabsorption of bicarb Decrease pH= due to increase H+ secretion Increase of H2PO4- = to buffer the H+
Created by: smmatheu
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