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Chap1 vocab

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QuestionAnswer
Annapolis Convention Was a meeting at Annapolis, Maryland of 12 delegates from 5 states (New Jersey, New York,PA,Delaware and Va) that called for a constitutional convention.
Anarchy Without ruler, No rulership or enforced Authority ; Absence of gov.
Aristocracy Rule by the "Best": In reality, rule by an upper class
Authoritarianism A type of regime in which only the gov. itself is fully controlled by the ruler.Social and economic institutions exsist that are not under the govs control. Contrast totalitarianism.
Authority The right and power of a gov. or other entity to enforce its decisions and complete obedience.
Capitalism An economic system characterized by the private ownership of wealth creating assets and also by free markets and freedom of contract.
Communism A revolutionary variant of socialism that favors a partisan ( and often totalitarian) dictatorship,gov control of all enterprises, and the replacement of free markets by central planning.
Consent of the People The idea that gov. and laws derive their legitimacy from the consent of the governed.
Conservatism A set of beliefs that includes a limited role for the national gov. in helping individuals, support for the traditional values and lifestyles,and a cautious response to change.
Democracy A system of gov. in which ultimate political authority is invested in the people derived from the Greek words demos ("the people") and kratos("authority").
Democratic republic A republic in which representatives elected by the people make and enforce laws and policies.
Direct Democracy A system of gov in which political decisions are made by the people directly, rather than by their elected reps; Probably possible only in a small political communities.
Divine Right of Kings That only Kings and Queens can speak to god and were "divine".
Dominant Culture The values,customs,language and ideals established by the group or groups in a society that traditionally have controlled politics and gov. institutions in that society.
Elite Theory A perspective holding that society is ruled by a small number of people who excersise power in their self-interest.
Eminent Domain A power set forth in the 5th amendment to take the U.S constitution that allows gov. to take Private property for public use under the condition that just compensation is offered to the landowner.
Enlightment Describes a time in western philosophy when the cultural life center and upon the 18th century, in which reason was advocated as the primary source and legitimacy for authority.
Equality The idea that all people are of equal worth
Facism A 20th century Ideology- often totalitarian- that exalts the national collective united behind absolute ruler. Fascism rejects liberal individualism, values action over rational deliberation, and glorifies war.
Federalist Papers A series of 85 articles advocating the ratification of the U.S Constitution.
Feudalism Was the Medieval European political system going higher in Nobility with military rank.
French and Indian War British vs. Native Americans in 1754-1768 part of the 7 yrs war.
Government The institution in which decisions are made that resolve conflicts or allocate benefits and privileges, Its is unique because it has the ultimate authority within society.
Hispanic Someone who can claim a heritage from a Spanish-speaking country. The term is used only in the U.S or other countries that receive immigrants. Spanish-speaking persons living in Spanish speaking do not normally apply the term to themselves.
Ideology A comprehensive set of beliefs about the nature of people and about the institutions and role of government.
Initiative A procedure by which voters can purpose a law or a constitutional amendment.
Institution An ongoing organization that preforms certain functions for society.
Legislature A governmental body primarily responsible for making of laws.
Legitimacy Popular acceptance of the right and power of a government or other entity to exercise authority.
Liberalism A set of beliefs that includes the advocacy of positive government action to improve the welfare of individuals, support for civil rights, and tolerance for political and social change.
Libertarianism A political ideology based on skepticism or opposition toward almost all government activists.
Liberty The greatest freedom of individuals that is consistent with the freedom of other individuals in the society.
Limited government A form of government based on the principle that the powers of government should be clearly limited either trough a written document or through wide public understanding.
Majoritarianism A political theory holding that in a democracy, the government ought to do what the majority of people want.
Majority 1. More than 50% 2. full age; the age at which a person is entitled by law to right to manage her or his own affairs and to the full enjoyment of civil rights.
Majority rule A basic principle of democracy asserting that the greatest number of citizens in any political unit should select officials and determine policies.
Monarchy A form of government in which supreme power is absolutely or nominally lodged with a individual who is head of state for life.
Oligarchy Is a form of government is in which power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society distinguished, by royal, wealth, intellectual, family, military or religious hegemony.
Order A state of peace and security maintaining order by protecting members of society from violence and criminal activity is the oldest purpose of government.
Participatory democracy Is a process emphasizing the broad participation of constituents in the direction and operation of political systems.
Political Culture The collection of beliefs and attitudes toward government and the political process held by a community or nation.
Political socialization The process through which individuals learn a set of political attitudes and form opinions about social issues the family and the education system are two of the most important forces in the political socialization process.
Politics The struggle or process to decide which members of society are: specifically the struggle over power or influence within organizations or informal groups that can grant benefits or privileges.
Popular sovereignty The concept that ultimate political authority is based on the will of the people.
Property Anything that is or may be subject to ownership.As conceived by the political philosopher John Locke,their right to property is a natural right superior to human law.
Recall A procedure allowing the people to vote to discuss an elected official from state office before his or her term has expired.
Referendum An electoral device where by legislative or constitutional measures are referred by the legislature to the voter for approval or disapproval.
Representative Democracy A form of government in which representatives elected by the people make and enforce laws and policies; may retain the monarchy in a ceremonial role.
Republic A form of government in which sovereignty rests with the people, who elect an agent to represent them in law making and other decisions.
Shays Rebellion The uprising of New England farmers about precarious institutions of the new republic.
Socialism A political ideology based on strong support for economic and social equality socialists traditionally envisioned a society in which large privately owned business were taken over by the government or by employee cooperatives.
Social Contract A voluntary agreement among individuals to secure their rights and welfare by creating a government and abiding by its rules.
Social democracy A political Ideology of the political left and center left on the classical political spectrum.
Social Order It refers to a set of linked social structures, social institutions and social practices which conserve, maintain and enforce "normal" ways of relating and behaving.
Statism A government role in the economy, both directly through state-owned enterprises and indirectly through state directed ones.
Totalitarian Regime A form of government that controls all aspects of the political and social life of a nation. All power resides with the government. The citizens have no power to choose the leadership or polices of the country.
Theocracy A form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the states supreme ruler.
Social democracy A political Ideology of the political left and center left on the classical political spectrum.
Social Order It refers to a set of linked social structures, social institutions and social practices which conserve, maintain and enforce "normal" ways of relating and behaving.
Statism A government role in the economy, both directly through state-owned enterprises and indirectly through state directed ones.
Totalitarian Regime A form of government that controls all aspects of the political and social life of a nation. All power resides with the government. The citizens have no power to choose the leadership or polices of the country.
Theocracy A form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the states supreme ruler.
Created by: chasethorn