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Musculoskeletal

FA complete review Anatomy and Physiology Part I

QuestionAnswer
What muscles make up the Rotator Cuff? 1. Supraspinatus 2. Infraspinatus 3. Teres minor 4. Subscapularis
What nerve innervates the Supraspinatus muscle? Suprascapular nerve
What is the function of the Supraspinatus muscle? Abducts arm initially (before the action of deltoid)
What muscle abducts arm before the deltoid takes over? Supraspinatus
Which Rotator cuff muscle is most likely injured? Supraspinatus
What test is done to diagnose a Rotator cuff injury of the Supraspinatus muscle? "empty/full can" test
What are the common conditions due to Supraspinatus injury? Tendinopathy or tear of the muscle
What nerve innervates the infraspinatus muscle? Suprascapular nerve
What is the function of the Infraspinatus muscle? Externally rotates arm
What muscle is injured in a "pitching injury"? Infraspinatus
A professional baseball pitcher will likely to injured which rotator cuff muscle? Infraspinatus
Teres minor muscle is innervated by which nerve? Axillary nerve
The Axillary nerve innervates which rotator cuff muscle? Teres minor
What is the function of the Teres minor muscle? Adducts and Externally rotates arm
Which rotator cuff muscle helps in adduction and external rotation of the arm? Teres minor
What is the innervation for the the Subscapularis muscle? Upper and lower subscapular nerves
The Upper and Lower Subscapular nerves innervate which rotator cuff muscle? Subscapularis
What are the functions performed by the Subscapularis muscle? 1. Internally rotates arm 2. Adducts arm
Which rotator cuff muscle(s) adduct the arm? Teres minor and Subscapularis muscles
Which rotator cuff muscle externally rotates the arm? Teres minor
Which rotator cuff muscle internally rotates the arm? Subscapularis
Internally rotates and adducts the arm. Muscle? Subscapularis
What nerve roots primarily innervate the rotator cuff? C5-C6
Which muscles are involved in arm ABDUCTION? Supraspinatus, Deltoid, Trapezius, and Serratus anterior
Which nerve innervates the Deltoid muscle? Axillary
The Trapezius muscle is innervated by the _________________ nerve. Accessory
The Long Thoracic nerve innervates which arm abduction muscle? Serratus anterior
Which muscle abducts arm form 0-15 degrees? Supraspinatus
What is the angle range of abduction performed by the deltoid muscle? 15-100 degrees
Which muscle abducts arm in degrees greater than 90 *, besides the Deltoid? Trapezius
At what point (degree) does the Serratus anterior help in abduction of arm? > 100 degrees
List of upper extremity nerves: 1. Axillary 2. Musculocutaneous 3. Radial 4. Median 5. Ulnar 6. Recurrent branch of Median nerve
What are the nerve roots of the Axillary nerve? C5-C6
Which upper extremity nerve has nerve roots C5-C6? Axillary
What are the nerve roots of the Musculocutaneous nerve? C5-C7
Which upper extremity nerve has roots C5-C7? Musculocutaneous
What are the nerve roots of the Radial nerve? C5-T1
Which upper extremity nerve has roots C5-T1? Radial
What are the nerve roots of the Median nerve in the upper extremities? C5-T1
Which upper extremity nerves have both the nerve roots C5-T1? Radial and Median
What are the nerve roots of the Ulnar nerve? C8 - T1
Nerve roots C8-T1 . Upper extremity nerve? Ulnar
What are the MCC of injury to the Axillary nerve? 1. Fractured surgical neck of humerus 2. Anterior dislocation of humerus
What nerve is likely to be injured in a fracture of the surgical neck of humerus? Axillary
Which nerve is injured by an anterior dislocation of the humerus? Axillary
How a an axillary nerve injured clinically presented? - Flattened deltoid - Loss of arm abduction at shoulder (>15 degrees) - Loss of sensation over deltoid and lateral arm
Which areas lose sensation in an axillary nerve injury? Area over the deltoid and lateral arm
Which part of the arm, losses sensation when there is a axillary injury? Lateral arm
A flattened deltoid, very likely indicates what type of nerve injury? Injury to the Axillary nerve
What causes injury to the Musculocutaneous nerve? Upper trunk compression
An Upper trunk compression may injure which upper extremity nerve? Musculocutaneous
What reflex is loss or decreased by an injured Musculocutaneous nerve? Biceps reflex
C5-C6 reflex = Biceps reflex
A decreased or diminished Biceps reflex, very likely indicates? Injury to the Musculocutaneous nerve
What is the clinical presentation of a Musculocutaneous nerve injury? 1. Decreased biceps reflex 2. Weakness of forearm flexion and supination 3. Loss of sensation over lateral forearm
Loss of sensation in the lateral forearm is due to injury to the ________________ nerve. Musculocutaneous
A person indicates weakness of forearm to flex and supinate. What is a possible cause? Injury to the Musculocutaneous nerve
What three common ways in which the Radial nerve is injured? 1. Compression of axilla 2. Midshaft fracture of humerus 3. Repetitive pronation/supination of forearm
What is a common way the Radial nerve is injured by compression of the axilla? Due to crutches or sleeping with arm over chair
What causes "Saturday night palsy"? Compression of axilla, commonly due to crutches, causing Radial nerve damage
Which nerve is damaged causes Wrist drop? Radial
Loss of elbow, wrist, and finger extension. Wrist drop
What causes "finger drop"? Repetitive pronation/supination of forearm
What is a possible condition due to prolonged use of a screwdriver? "Finger drop" due to radial nerve damage
What are clinical features of Radial nerve damage? 1. Wrist drop 2. Decrease grip strength 3. Loss of sensation over posterior arm/forearm and dorsal hand
What arm or forearm sensation losses sensation due to Radial nerve? Posterior arm/forearm and dorsal hand
Nerve damaged with a midshaft humeral fracture Radial
What conditions cause Median nerve damage? 1. Supracondylar fracture of humerus 2. Carpal tunnel syndrome 3. Wrist lacerations
Which is the proximal cause of lesion to the Median nerve? Supracondylar fracture of humerus
Which are the distal lesions that cause Median nerve damage? Carpal tunnel syndrome and wrist laceration
Which hand gestures or abnormalities are associated with Median nerve damage? "Ape hand" and "Pope's blessing"
Carpal tunnel syndrome causes what type of nerve damage? Distal Median nerve damage
What type of nerve injury is due to Supracondylar fracture of the humerus? Proximal Median nerve damage
What are the clinical features of Median nerve damage? 1. "Ape hand" and "Pope's blessing" 2. Loss of wrist flexion, flexion of lateral fingers, thumb opposition, lumbricals of 2nd and 3rd digits 3. Loss of sensation over thenar eminence and dorsal and palmar aspect of lateral 3 1/2 fingers with proximal lesion
"Pope's blessing" is due to injury to the ________________ nerve. Median
What are the hand and finger deficits in Medina nerve damage? Loss of: - Wrist flexion - Flexion of lateral fingers - Thumb opposition - Lumbricals of 2nd and 3rd digits
Loss of thumb opposition may be due to ______________nerve damage. Median
Which area, thenar or hypothenar eminence, losses sensation with Medina nerve damage? Thenar
What are common causes of Ulnar nerve damage? 1. Fracture of medial epicondyle of humerus "funny bone" 2. Fracture hook of hamate from fall on outstretched hand
What is the common proximal lesion that causes ulnar damage? Fracture of medial epicondyle of humerus "funny bone"
Fractured "funny bone" may cause ____________ nerve damage. Ulnar
What is the distal lesion that causes Ulnar nerve damage? Fractured hook of hamate form fall on outstretched hand
What is formed or seen upon digit extension in a person with Ulnar nerve damage? "Ulnar claw"
If the Ulnar nerve suffers damage, it is very likely that the wrist will present with __________________ deviation. Radial
Radial deviation of wrist upon flexion. Incidentes? Proximal Ulnar nerve damage
What are the fingers and hand deficits seen with Ulnar nerve damage or lesion? Loss of : 1. Wrist flexion 2. Flexion of medial fingers 3. Abduction and adduction of fingers (interossei), 4. Actions of medial 2 lumbrical muscles
What is the sensory loss due to Ulnar nerve lesion? Loss sensation over medial 1 1/2 fingers including hypothenar eminence.
The hypothenar eminence has _____________ nerve innervation. Ulnar
Which nerve damage cause loss of sensation over the Hypothenar eminence? Ulnar
The Ulnar nerve damage, cause loss of sensation over the Thenar or Hypothenar eminence? Hypothenar eminence
What nerve is commonly damaged or suffers lesion with a Superficial laceration of palm? Recurrent branch of Median nerve
How is the Recurrent branch of the Median nerve often damaged? Superficial laceration of palm
What type of hand deformity is seen with an Recurrent branch of Median nerve lesion? "Ape hand"
What are the common clinical features of Recurrent branch of Median nerve damage? 1. Ape and 2. Loss of thenar group: opposition, abduction, and flexion of thumb 3. No loss of sensation
Is there loss of sensation with a lesion to the recurrent branch of the Median nerve? No loss of sensation
What actions of the thumb are diminished or absent upon lesion to the recurrent branch of median nerve? Opposition, abduction, and flexion
Humerus fractures, proximally to distally, follow sith simple mnemonic? ARM Axillary --> Radial --> Median
What are the overuse injuries of the elbow? 1. Medial epicondylitis (golfer's elbow) 2. Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow)
Which overuse elbow injury has pain near the medial epicondyle? Medial epicondylitis
What is the common name for Medial epicondylitis? Golfer's elbow
Golfer's elbow = Medial epicondylitis
What is the cause of Golfer's elbow? Repetitive flexion (forehand shots) of elbow
What is the cause of Tennis elbow? Repetitive extension (backhand shots) of elbow
Which overuse elbow injury experience pain near lateral epicondyle? Lateral epicondylitis
What is the common name for Lateral epicondylitis? Tennis elbow
Tennis elbow = Lateral epicondylitis
List of all wrist bones: 1. Scaphoid 2. Lunate 3. Triquetrum 4. Pisiform 5. Hamate 6. Capitate 7. Trapezoid 8. Trapezium
Name for the group of wrist bones? Carpal bones
Which carpal bone is palpable in the anatomic snuff box? Scaphoid
Which the the MC fractured carpal bone? Scaphoid
The Scaphoid bone is : 1. Palpable in the anatomic snuff box 2. Most commonly fractured carpal bone
What is the most common way the Scaphoid bone is fractured? Fall on an outstretched hand
Falling on an outstretched hand most likely will fracture with carpal bone? Scaphoid
What are common complication of proximal Scaphoid fractures? 1. Avascular necrosis and , 2. Nonunion due to retrograde blood supply
What type of wrist fracture is commonly not seen in the initial x-ray? Scaphoid fracture
What is caused by dislocation of the LUnate? Acute carpal tunnel syndrome
Sudden, quick onset Carpal tunnel syndrome, may be due to: Lunate dislocation
What is a "boxer's fracture? Metacarpal neck fracture
What is the common cause of a "boxer's fracture"? Direct blow with a closed fist
Which metacarpal are most likely to be injured in a "boxer's fracture"? 4th and 5th
An amateur boxer practices punching repeatedly and hard a concrete wall. What is a possible injury in case of doing it too much or with no supervision? Metacarpal neck fracture ("Boxer's fracture")
Entrapment of the median nerve in the region of the wrist. Dx? Carpal tunnel syndrome
What causes Carpal tunnel syndrome? Entrapment of median nerve in carpal tunnel
The entrapment of the median nerve causing Carpal tunnel syndrome is between which two structure? Transverse carpal ligament and carpal bones
What are the clinical results of the entrapment of the median nerve? Paresthesia, pain , and numbness in distribution of median nerve
Carpal tunnel syndrome produces thenar or hypothenar eminence atrophy? Thenar eminence atrophy
Why is the sensation to the thenar eminence spared in Carpal tunnel syndrome? Dut the fact that Palmar cutaneous branch enters hand EXTERNAL to carpal tunnel
What are common signs/maneuvers that suggests Carpal tunnel syndrome? (+) Tinel sign and Phalen maneuver
What is the Tinel sign? Percussion of wrist causing tingling
What is the Phalen maneuver? A 90 degree flexion of wrist causing tingling.
(+) Tinel sign and (+) Phalen manuever. Dx? Carpal tunnel syndrome
Which wrist condition is associated with repetitive use? Carpal tunnel syndrome
What is Guyon canal syndrome? Compression of ulnar nerve at wrist
The compression of the ulnar nerve at the wrist. Dx? Guyon canal syndrome
Which athletes often develop Guyon canal syndrome? Cyclists
Why do cyclists are often found with Guyon canal syndrome? Due to pressure from handlebars
What are two common pediatric fractures? 1. Greenstick fracture 2. Torus (buckle) fracture
Incomplete fracture extending part way through with of bone following bending stress. Greenstick fracture
Which pediatric fracture has an intact compression side? Greenstick fracture
Definition of a Greenstick fracture: Incomplete fracture extending partway through width of bone following bending stress.
Torus (buckle) fracture? Axial force applied to immature bone causing cortex buckle on compression side and fractures
Which pediatric fracture has a incontact Tension side? Torus (buckle) fracture
List of Hand muscles: 1. Thenar (median) 2. Hypothenar (ulnar) 3. Dorsal interossei (ulnar) 4. Palmar interossei (ulnar) 5. Lumbricals (1st/2nd, median; 3rd/4th, ulnar)
What are the Thenar muscles? Opponens pollicis, Abductor pollicis brevis, Flexor pollicis brevis, Superficial head
What are the Hypothenar muscles? Opponens digiti minimi, Abductor digiti minimi, Flexor digiti minimi brevis
What are the functions that perform the hypothenar and thenar muscle groups? Oppose, Abduct, and Flex
The interossei muscles, both Dorsal and Palmar, are innervated by which nerve? Ulnar
What function of fingers are performed by the Dorsal interossei? Abduct fingers
What function of fingers is performed by the Palmar interossei muscles? Adduct fingers
The mnemonic DAB, is used for: Indicate that Dorsal interossei muscles ABduct fingers
PAD, is used to remember: Palmar interossei muscles ADduct fingers
The first and second lumbricals are innervated by which nerve? Median
Thenar muscle group is innervated by what nerve? Median
Which upper extremity nerve innervates the Hypothenar muscle group? Ulnar
Nerve innervating the 3rd and 4th lumbricals? Ulnar
What are the function of the lumbricals? - Flex at the MCP joint - Extend PIP and DIP joints
Which hand muscles are in charge of flexing finger at MCP joint, and extension at PIP and DIP joints? Lumbricals
Which part of the brachial plexus is involved in Erb's palsy? Upper trunk, involving roots C5-C6
Which part of the brachial plexus is involved in Klumpke's palsy? Lower trunk, involving roots C8-T1
A wrist drop due to a brachial plexus lesion, is likely located at which level of the brachial plexus? Posterior chord
What are the nerve roots that comprise the Brachial plexus? C5-T1
What are the divisions of the brachial plexus? Roots > Trunks > Divisions > Cords > Branches
What are important lesions of the brachial plexus that involve the Trunks? Erb palsy and Klumpke palsy
Which is the only relevant brachial plexus lesion involving the proximal part of the posterior cord of brachial plexus? Wrist drop
Which nerve is lesioned in a Winged Scapula? Long thoracic nerve
Axillary nerve lesion at the proximal axillary nerve? Deltoid paralysis
At what point of the brachial plexus does a person develop "Saturday night palsy"? Proximal part of the Radial nerve (not the Poerterio cord)
What is the difference between the Wrist drop and Saturday night palsy wrist drop? In normal wrist drop, the lesion is at the level of the posterior division, which affect the radial and axillary nerves, which in Saturday night palsy, it only involves the Radial nerve.
Which brachial plexus branch is affected in a person has difficulty flexing elbow? Musculocutáneos
What are the deficits seen in lesion at the Median nerve brachial plexus branch? Decreased thumb function, and "Pope's blessing"
Which brachial plexus branch lesion is featured with a Claw hand? Ulnar
What is another way to refer to Erb palsy? "Waiter's tip"
Traction or tear of upper trunk (C5-C6). Dx? Erb palsy
What is the most common cause of infant Erb palsy? Lateral traction on neck during delivery
What is the MCC of adult Erb palsy? Trauma
What muscles are affected in Erb palsy? 1. Deltoid, 2. Supraspinatus 3. Infraspinatus 4. Biceps brachii
What is the functional deficit in Erb palsy due to deltoid and supraspinatus involvement? Lack of abduction, presenting with arm hanging by the side
What muscle deficit causes the lateral rotation seen in Erb palsy? Infraspinatus
In Erb palsy, the Biceps brachii is affected causing --> Deficit in flexion, supination , presenting with arm extended and pronated
What muscle deficit in Erb palsy causes the patient to present clinically with arm extended and pronated? Biceps brachii
What is the injury that causes Klumpke palsy? Traction or tear of lower trunk: C8-T1 root
What is the most common cause of infantile Klumpke palsy? Upward force on arm during delivery
What is the MCC of adult Klumpke palsy? Trauma, such as grabbing a tree branch to break a fall
What are the main muscles affected in Klumpke palsy? Intrinsic hand muscles: lumbricals, interossei, thenar, and hypothenar
What are the intrinsic hand muscles? Lumbricals, interossei, thenar, and hypothenar
Which brachial plexus conditions affect the Intrinsic hand muscles? Klumpke palsy and Thoracic outlet syndrome
What are the clinical features of Klumpke palsy? Total Claw hand
What functional deficits causes Total Claw hand? Lumbricals normally flex MCP joints and extend DIP and PIP joints
Which brachial plexus condition is seen with Total Claw hand? Klumpke palsy
What type of injury causes Thoracic outlet syndrome? Compression of lower trunk and subclavian vessels
Which vessels are compressed or affected in Thoracic outlet syndrome? Subclavian vessels
What are common causes of Thoracic outlet syndrome? Cervical rib adn Pancoast tumor
Which muscles are affected in Thoracic outlet syndrome? Intrinsic hand muscles
What are the functional deficits of Thoracic outlet syndrome? Atrophy of intrinsic hand muscles; Ischemia, pain, and edema due to vascular compression
Which nerve roots are affected in Winged scapula? C5-C7
Lesion of Long Thoracic nerve, roots C5-C7. Dx? Winged scapula
What are common causes of Winged scapula? 1. Axillary node dissection after mastectomy 2. Stab wounds
Which muscle is affected in Winged scapula? Serratus anterior
Which condition affects the Serratus anterior muscle? Winged scapula
What are the functional deficits of Winged scapula? Inability to anchor scapula to thoracic cage ---> cannot abduct arm above horizontal position
Which brachial plexus condition is seen with the inability to abduct arm above horizontal position? Winged scapula
When is hand "clawing" most likely seen? In distal lesions of median or ulnar nerves
Which distortion of hand are less pronounced, proximal or distal, lesions? Proximal
How are proximal lesions that cause distortion sign of the hand are presented? Present during voluntary flexion of the digits
What is the sign of a distal ulnar nerve lesion? Ulnar claw
What is the hand dostorion sign of Proximal median nerve lesion? Pope's blessing
What is the hand distortion sign of Distal Median nerve lesion? Median claw
What is the hand distortion sign of Proximal Ulnar nerve lesion? OK gesture
Atrophy of the Thenar eminence causes: Ape hand
Which nerve lesion causes Thenar eminence atrophy? Median
Hypothenar eminence atrophy is seen with ________ nerve lesions. Ulnar
Which ligament connects the Lateral femoral condyle to the anterior tibia? ACL
Which knee ligament connects the Medial femoral condyle to the posterior tibia? PCL
LAMP: Lateral femoral condyle to anterior tibia: ACL Medial femoral condyle to posterior tibia: PCL
List of knee exam tests: 1. Anterior drawer sign 2. Posterior drawer sign 3. Abnormal passive abduction 4. Abnormal passive adduction 5. McMurray test
A (+) anterior drawer sign indicates what injury? ACL injury
Which are two test performed to diagnose ACL injury? 1. Anterior drawer sign 2. Lachman test
Bending knee at 90 degree angle, and "pull" knee forward, to check for anterior sliding relative to femur. Anterior drawer sign
Bending knee at 90 degree angle, increase posterior gliding of tibia due to PCL injury. (+) Posterior drawer sign
Which test is more sensitive, Lachman test or Anterior drawer test? Lachman test
(+) Posterior drawer sign indicates what type of injury? PCL injury
A (+) abnormal passive abduction (valgus) test, indicates what type of knee injury? MCL injury
A suspected MCL injury athlete, must have a which knee test (+)? Abnormal passive abduction test
Which test, if (+), shows lateral space widening of tibia? Abnormal passive adduction test
In a MCL injury, what is the result fo applying latrea (valgus) force to the extended knee? Medial widening of tibia
Which knee test is (+) in LCL injury? Abnormal passive adduction test
What is another way to refer to the medial force applied on an extended knee while performing test fro LCL injury? Varus force
Valgus force, refers to abnormal passive adduction or abduction test? Abduction
Varus force, refers to abnormal passive adduction or abduction test? Adduction
Which knee test is performed in suspected meniscus injury? McMurray test
What dictates a (+) McMurray test? Pain, "popping" on external/or internal rotation of knee
What is extended or flex, in a McMurray test? Knee is either extended or flexed
What is rotated in a McMurray test? Tibia/foot
(+) McMurray test on external rotation. Dx? Medial meniscal tear
McMurray test shows pain and popping on internal rotation of foot while knee is flex and/or extended. Dx? Lateral meniscal tear
List of hip and knee conditons: 1. Trochanteric bursitis 2. "Unhappy triad" 3. Prepatellar bursitis 4. Baker cyst
What is Trochanteric bursitis? Inflammation of the gluteal tendon and bursa lateral to greater trochanter of femur
Inflammation of the gluteal tendon and bursa lateral to greater trochanter of femur. Trochanteric bursitis
Common injury in contact sports due to lateral force applied to a planted lag. Dx? Unhappy triad
Which ligaments are affected in the "Unhappy triad"? ACL, MCL, and medial meniscus
Even though the medial meniscus is the one that is part of the Unhappy triad, but which is most commonly affected? Lateral meniscus
Quarterback gets tackled by the left side while he's throwing the ball with a planted left foot. Falls immediately the knee shoes pain and instability. Dx? "Unhappy triad" with Lateral meniscus damage
What is prepatellar bursitis? Inflammation of the prepatellar bursa in front of the kneecap
What is another name for prepatellar bursitis? "Housemaid's knee"
What are some common causes to prepatellar bursitis? Repeated trauma or pressure from excessive kneeling
What is a Baker cyst? Popliteal fluid collection in gastrocnemius-semimembranosus bursa commonly communicating with synovial space and related to chronic joint disease
What chronic joint diseases are often associated with Baker cysts? Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid arthritis
Popliteal fluid collection in the back of the knee. Baker cyst
Which area is the one collecting popliteal fluid in a Baker cyst? Gastrocnemius-semimembranosus bursa
Which ankle ligament is the most commonly sprained? Anterior Talofibular ligament
What is a low ankle sprain? Anterior Talofibular ligament sprain
What movements cause a Anterior Talofibular ligament sprain? Overinversion/ supination of foot
A soccer player overinverts foot while playing a match. What is the most likely sprain suffered by the player? Anterior Talofibular ligament sprain
Anterior Talofibular ligament sprain is also known as: Low ankle sprain
What is the most commonly injured ligament in a high ankle sprain? Anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament
What is most common, a low ankle or high ankle sprain? Low ankle sprain
Which ankle sprain involves the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament? High ankle sprain
What are Muscle proprioceptors? Specialized sensory receptors that relay information about muscle dynamics.
What are two types of muscle proprioceptors? Muscle spindle and Golgi tendon organ
What is the location of Muscle spindles? Body of muscle/type Ia and II sensory axons
Which muscle proprioceptors are found in type Ia and II sensory axons? Muscle spindles
Which type of muscle proprioceptors are seen in the body of the muscle? Muscle spindles
How are muscle proprioceptors activated? Increased muscle stretch
Increase in muscle stretch will activate which muscle proprioceptors? Muscle spindles
Muscle spindle pathway: 1. Increase length and speed of stretch --> 2. via dorsal root ganglion (DRG) --> 3. Activation of inhibitory interneuron and alpha-motor neuron-> 4. Simultaneous inhibition of antagonist muscle and activation of agonist muscle
What action of muscle spindle pathway prevents overstretching? Simultaneous inhibition of antagonist muscle
What action is produced by activation of agonist muscle by muscle spindle proprioceptors? Contraction
Which muscle proprioceptors would be activated if there is an increase in tension on the muscle? Golgi tendon organs
Where are Golgi tendon organ proprioceptors located? Tendons/ type Ib sensory axons
What type of muscle proprioceptors are found in tendons? Golgi tendon organs
Which sensory axons type are associated with Golgi tendon organ? Type Ib sensory axons
Associated muscle proprioceptor in Increased muscle TENSION. Golgi tendon organs
Created by: rakomi
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