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Neurology

FA complete review Part 3.5 Otology

QuestionAnswer
What are the main division of the ear? Outer ear, Middle ear, and Inner ear
What accounts for the Outer ear? Visible portion of ear (pinna), includes auditory canal and tympanic membrane.
How does the Outer ear transmit sound? Via vibration of tympanic membrane
What is the "pinna"? Visible portion of ear
What is included, besides the pinna, in the Outer ear? Auditory canal and tympanic membrane
What is the Middle ear? Air-filled space with three bones called the ossicles
What is the name given to group of three bones found in the Middle ear? Ossicles
In which division of ear are the "ossicles" located? Middle ear
The auditory canal is in the ______________ ear. Outer ear
Which division or part of the ear has the tympanic membrane? Outer ear
What are the names of the 3 ossicles? Malleus, incus, and Stapes
What is the Malleus? One of three ossicles (bones) in the middle ear.
The Malleus, ______________ and ______________, are the ossicles. Incus and Stapes
What is the role or function of the ossicles? Conduct and amplify sound from tympanic membrane to inner ear
What ear structure(s) is responsible to conduct and amplify sound from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear? Ossicles
Snail-shaped, fluid-filled cochlea. Inner ear
What part of the ear contains the basilar membrane? Inner ear
Vibrates secondary to sound waves Basilar membrane
How is vibration transduced in the inner ear? Via specialized hair cells --> auditory nerve signaling --> brain stem.
Where in the inner ear does low frequency sounds are heard? Apex near helicotrema
What type of frequency is perceived at the cochlea? High frequency
Sound heard best at base of cochlea. High frequency
What are the two types of hearing loss (diagnostically)? 1. Conductive hearing loss 2. Sensorineural hearing loss
What are the two common tests performed to diagnose hearing loss? Weber test and Rinne test
What type of hearing loss produces an abnormal Rinne test? Conductive hearing loss
Which hearing test when performed it test the localization of sound? Weber test
Which type of hearing loss is seen with Weber test that localized sound to affected ear? Conductive hearing los
Sensorineural hearing loss Weber test: Localizes to affected ear
A Weber test in the Conductive hearing loss: Localizes to affected ear
Weber test n Sensorineural hearing loss: Localizes to affected ear
Which auditory test is directed to indicate the localization of sound? Weber test
Which auditory test is intended to indicate bone and air conductivity? Rinne test
A person with Conductive hearing loss will have _______________ Rinne test. Abnormal
What indicates a Normal Rinne test? Air conductive > Bone conductivity
If the sound/vibratory conductivity of bone is larger, then Rinne test is _____________________. Abnormal
Which type of hearing loss experiences a normal Rinne test? Sensorineural hearing loss
Which type of hearing loss experiences an abnormal Rinne test? Conductive hearing loss
Weber test -> Localized to affected ear Rinne test --> Abnormal What is the hearing loss type? Conductive hearing loss
Weber test --> Localizes to unaffected ear Rinne test --> Normal What is the hearing loss type? Sensorineural hearing loss
Which type of hearing loss has the sound localized to the "good" ear in a Weber test? Sensorineural hearing loss
Which type of hearing loss will have the sound/vibration to localized at the "bad" or affected ear? Conductive hearing loss
Bone > air Abnormal Rinne test seen in Conductive hearing loss
What are the two most common types of hearing loss? 1. Noise-induced hearing loss 2. Presbycusis
What is "Noise-induced hearing loss"? Damage to stereociliated cell in organ of Corti
In Noise-induced hearing loss, which hearing frequency is lost first? High-frequency hearing
What is a severe consequence of a sudden, extremely loud noise? Hearing loss due to tympanic membrane rupture
The rupture of the tympanic membrane due to a sudden and extremely loud noise, is an example of which type of hearing loss? Noise-induced hearing loss
What is Presbycusis? Aging-related progressive bilateral/symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss du tot destruction of hari cell at the cochlear base.
Destruction of hair cell at the cochlear base, leads to what type of hearing loss? Presbycusis
What population is most common to develop Presbycusis? Elderly
Hearing loss associated with increasing age. Presbycusis
What hearing is preserved in Presbycusis? Low-frequency hearing at apex
What is destroyed in Presbycusis that leads to hearing loss? Hair cells at the cochlear base
Overgrowth of desquamated keratin debris within the middle ear space. Cholesteatoma
What is a Cholesteatoma? Overgrowth of desquamated keratin debris within the middle ear space
Which part of the ear develops Cholesteatomas? Middle ear
What type of hearing loss, conductive or sensorineural, is seen with Cholesteatoma? Conductive hearing loss
What causes the conductive hearing loss in a Cholesteatoma? The erosion ossicles, mastoid air cells
Painless otorrhea is a common symptom of _____________________. Cholesteatoma
Middle ear mass + Painless otorrhea. Dx? Cholesteatoma
Vertigo: Sensation of spinning while actually stationary
What is a subtype of "dizziness," but distinct form "lightheadedness"? Vertigo
What are the two types of vertigo? - Central vertigo - Peripheral vertigo
What is more common , peripheral or central vertigo? Peripheral vertigo
__________________ vertigo is an inner ear etiology. Peripheral vertigo
What parto fo the ear etiology is peripheral vertigo considered? Inner ear
What is the difference in etiology between Peripheral and Central vertigo? Peripheral vertigo is an inner ear condition, while Central Vertigo is due to Brain stem or cerebellar lesion
What are common etiologies or condition that lead to development of Peripheral vertigo? 1. Semicircular canal debris 2. Vericular nerve infection 3. Meniere disease 4. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)
What is the treatment for Peripheral vertigo? Antihistamines, anticholinergics, antiemetics
Besides the general medications for Peripheral vertigo, what else is used to treat Peripheral vertigo caused by Meniere disease? Low-salt diet + diuretics (if needed)
For which condition is the Epley maneuver performed? Treatment of BPPV
BPPV causes _______________ vertigo. Peripheral vertigo
What is the common triad associated with Meniere's disease? 1. Sensorineural hearing loss 2. Vertigo 3. Tinnitus
A person with normal Rinne test, Weber test localized sound to non-affected ear, describes currently the room spinning around and a constant ring in the affected ear. Dx? Meniere disease
What would be the Weber test for a Meniere's disease patient? Localizes to unaffected ear
What does the Rinne test on a person with Meniere's disease demonstrate? Normal; Air conduction is greater than bone conduction of sound and vibration.
What are two examples of etiologies that may cause brainstem or cerebellar lesions, leading to develop Central vertigo? Stroke affecting vestibular nuclei or posterior fossa tumor
What ar the findings in Central vertigo? - Directional or purely vertical nystagmus - Skew deviation - Diplopia - Dysmetria - Focal neurologic findings
Which type of vertigo is associated with vertical nystagmus and skew deviation? Central vertigo
A ________________- fossa tumor may cause Central vertigo. Posterior
What is Benign Paroxysmal Positional vertigo (BPPV)? Sudden sensation that you're spinning or that the inside of your head is spinning
What is the Epley manuveur? Type of exercise help that helps to treat the symptoms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)
Created by: rakomi
 

 



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