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Neurology

FA complete review part 3.3 Pathology: Brain cancer

QuestionAnswer
List of Adult primary brain tumors: 1. Glioblastoma multiforme 2. Oligodendroglioma 3. Meningioma 4. Hemangioblastoma 5. Pituitary adenoma 6. Schwannoma
What is a Grade IV astrocytoma? Glioblastoma multiforme
Glioblastoma multiforme is: Grade IV astrocytoma
Adult or Childhood brain tumor: Glioblastoma multiforme? Adult
Common, highly malignant primary brain tumor with ~ 1 year median survival. Dx? Glioblastoma multiforme
What is a "common" way to refer to Glioblastoma multiforme? Butterfly glioma
Severe astrocytoma that can cross corpus callosum. Dx? Glioblastoma multiforme
- Astrocyte origin, GFAP (+) - "Pseudopalisading" What is the possible brain tumor? Glioblastoma multiforme
What is the characteristic of the astrocytes in Glioblastoma multiforme? GFAP (+); "Pseudopalisading" pleomorphic tumor cells border central aras of necrosis, hemorrhage, and/or microvascular proliferation
"Pseudopalisading" pleomorphic tumor cells border central areas of necrosis. Dx? Glioblastoma multiforme
What is the main cell proliferation in Glioblastoma multiforme? Astrocytes
What causes Glioblastoma multiforme to adopt the term "butterfly glioma"? The fact it can cross the corpus callosum, gives it a butterfly appearance
Where is a Glioblastoma multiforme most likely found? Cerebral hemispheres
Which primary adult brain tumor is found in the Cerebral hemispheres? Glioblastoma multiforme
Where do most often Oligodendroglioma appear? Frontal lobe
"Chicken-wire" capillary pattern. Brain tumor? Oligodendroglioma
What is origin cell of Oligodendroglioma? Oligodendrocytes
What is the histology of Oligodendrogliomas? "Fried egg" cells- round nuclei with creal cytoplasm. Often calcified
Which adult brain tumor appears in the frontal lobes? Oligodendroglioma
Adult or Childhood brain tumor: Oligodendroglioma? Adult
Adult or Childhood brain tumor: Meningioma? Adult
Adult or Childhood brain tumor: Hemangioblastoma? Adult
Adult or Childhood brain tumor: Pituitary adenoma? Adult
Which adult brain tumor is common, typically benign, more common in females than males? Meningioma
Most common location for Meningioma? Near surfaces of brain and in parasagittal region
Which is brain tumor is often seen with dural attachment? Meningioma
Which tumor is seen with a "tail" attached to the dura? Meningioma
Arachnoid cell origin brain tumor. Meningioma
Histology of a Meningioma: Spindle cells concentrically arranged in a whorled pattern; psammoma bodies
(+) Psammoma bodies brain tumor Meningioma
Spindle cells concentrically arranged in whorled pattern; (+) Psammoma bodies. Meningioma
Blood vessel oring adult brain tumor. Hemangioblastoma
Near surfaces fo brain and parasagittal regions. Meningioma
Hemangiomas are most often __________________. Cerebellar
What conditions are associated with Hemangioblastomas? von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, when found with retinal angiomas
What is a possible consequence produced by Hemangioblastomas Secondary polycythemia
How does a Hemangioblastoma cause secondary polycythemia? It produces Erythropoietin
What is the histology found in Hemangioblastomas? Closely arranged, thin-walled capillaries with minimal intervening parenchyma.
Adult or Childhood brain tumor: Schwannoma? Adult
What are the tow types of Pituitary adenoma? 1. Non-functioning (silent) 2. Hyperfunctioning (hormone producing)
What is meant by a Hyperfunctional Pituitary adenoma? Brain tumor that produces hormones
What is the most common hyperfunctional pituitary adenoma? Prolactinoma
What is the hormone consequence of the most common hyperfunctional pituitary adenoma? Hyperprolactinemia
What are rare, hyperfunctional pituitary adenomas? 1. Adenoma of somatotrophs (GH) --> acromegaly/gigantism 2. Adenoma of corticotrophs (ACTH) --> Cushing disease
What mass effect is seen with nonfunctional pituitary adenomas? Bitemporal hemianopsia, hypopituitarism, and headache
What structure is compressed by pituitary adenoma that causes bitemporal hemianopsia? Optic chiasm
The Optic chiasm is often compressed by which adult brain tumor? Nonfunctional pituitary adenoma
What is the normal presentation of Prolactinoma in women? Galactorrhea, amenorrhea, and decreased bone density due to suppression of estrogen.
What is the reason for the female clinical symptoms due to a Prolactinoma? Suppression of estrogen by increased prolactin
How is a prolactinoma clinically presented in men? Low libido and infertility
What is the non-surgical treatment of a Pituitary adenoma? Dopamine agonists
Dopamine agonist are used to treat what type of adult brain tumor? Pituitary adenoma
A transsphenoidal resection is a surgical treatment for: Pituitary adenoma
What are common dopamine agonists used in Pituitary adenoma treatment? Bromocriptine and Cabergoline
What is the location for a Schwannoma? Cerebellopontine angle
What brain tumor is commonly found in the Cerebellopontine angle? Schwannoma
What cranial nerves are involved in Schwannoma? CN VII and VIII
Vestibular Schwannoma is localized in: CN VIII in internal acoustic meatus
What brain tumor is located at Internal acoustic meatus? Vestibular Schwannoma
Bilateral Schwannomas are associated with what condition? NF-2
What is the origin cell for Schwannomas? Schwann cell
What are features that mark or indicate Schwann cell? S-100 (+), and Biphasic
Histology of Schwannoma: Dense, hypercellular areas containing spindle cells alternating with hypocellular, myxoid areas
Histology findings: Dense, hypercellular areas alternating with hypocellular, myxoid areas. Schwannoma histology
S-100 (+). Brain cancer? Schwannoma
List of childhood primary brain tumors: 1. Pilocytic astrocytoma 2. Medulloblastoma 3. Ependymoma 4. Craniopharyngioma 5. Pinealoma
Adult or Childhood brain tumor: Pilocytic astrocytoma? Childhood
Adult or Childhood brain tumor: Medulloblastoma? Childhood
Adult or Childhood brain tumor: Ependymoma? Childhood
Adult or Childhood brain tumor: Craniopharyngioma? Childhood
Adult or Childhood brain tumor: Pinealoma? Childhood
Low-grade astrocytoma in children. Pilocytic astrocytoma
What is the most common primary brain tumor in children? Pilocytic astrocytoma
Where is most often found a Pilocytic astrocytoma? Posterior fossa (cerebellum)
The Posterior fossa (cerebellum) is the most common location for which childhood primary brain tumor? Pilocytic astrocytoma
What is the cell of origin for Pilocytic astrocytoma? Glial cell
GFAP (+). Glial cell oring. Child. Dx? Pilocytic astrocytoma
Histologic findings in Pilocytic astrocytoma: - Rosenthal fibers - eosinophilic, corkscrew fibers
Rosenthal fibers are seen in which childhood brain malignancy? Pilocytic astrocytoma
What is the most malignant primary childhood brain tumor? Medulloblastoma
What is the most common location for a Medulloblastoma? Cerebellum
What structure may be compressed by a Medulloblastoma? 4th ventricle
What is the result of compression to the 4th ventricle by a Medulloblastoma? Noncommunicating hydrocephalus
What type of hydrocephalus is seen in Medulloblastoma? Noncommunicating hydrocephalus
From of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). Medulloblastoma
What are the important histological findings of a Medulloblastoma? Homer-Wright rosettes, small blue cells
Small blue cells found in Medulloblastoma histological view. Homer-Wright rosettes
(+) Homer-Wright rosettes. Dx? Medulloblastoma
"Drop metastases" to spinal cord. Medulloblastoma
What are the symptoms caused by the noncommunicating hydrocephalus often found in Medulloblastoma patients? Headaches and Papilledema
What is the most likely childhood brain tumor that involves or may cause 4th ventricle compression? Medulloblastoma
Where is an ependymoma most likely found? 4th ventricle
An autopsy of a deceased child shows a large mass in the 4th ventricle. Dx? Ependymoma
Ependymoma may cause ---> Hydrocephalus
How is the prognosis of a Ependymoma? Poor
Ependyma cell origin childhood brain tumor. Ependymoma
What is the main histological characteristic of an Ependymoma? Perivascular pseudorosettes
What, histological finding, is seen near the nucleus of Ependymoma cells? Rod-shaped blepharoplasts
What are the Blepharoplasts? Basal ciliary bodies near the nucleus of ependymal ells
Tumor cells arranged radially around a central vessel Perivascular pseudorosettes
What is the most common childhood supratentorial tumor? Craniopharyngioma
A Craniopharyngioma is often mistaken or misdiagnosed with a ___________________. Pituitary adenoma
What complication or symptoms do both, Craniopharyngioma and Pituitary adenoma, cause that may indicate why there are often mistaken by each other? Bitemporal hemianopsia
Which childhood tumor is derived from remnants of Rathke's pouch (ectoderm)? Craniopharyngioma
What is a key or featured histological finding of a Craniopharyngioma? Cholesterol crystal found in "motor-oil"-like fluid within tumor
Cholesterol crystal in what seems to be motor oil fluid. Dx? Craniopharyngioma
What is a Pinealoma? Childhood brain tumor of pineal gland
What is a common consequence of a Pinealoma? Parinaud syndrome
How does a Pinealoma causes Parinaud syndrome? Compression of tectum which presents with vertical palsy gaze
What is Parinaud syndrome? Compression of tectum leading to vertical gaze palsy
List of common compression compilation by a Pinealoma? 1. Parinaud syndrome 2. Obstructive hydrocephalus 3. Precocious puerbty in males
How does a Pinealoma cause Obstructive hydrocephalus? Compression of cerebral aqueduct
The compression of the cerebral aqueduct by a Pinealoma leads to development of: Obstructive hydrocephalus
How does Pinealoma cause precocious puberty in males? Increase B-hCG production
Which childhood primary brain tumor is similar to germ cell tumors? Pinealoma
A testicular seminoma can be said to be the ____________ of the brain tumors. Pinealoma
What are the deficits or symptoms seen with frontal lobe tumors? 1. One sided paralysis 2. Seizures 3. Defective memory 4. Impaired judgement 5. Personality changes
What are the common symptoms seen with Temporal lobe tumors? - Occasional seizures - Language disorders
Brain stem CNS tumors present what common symptoms? 1. Uncoordinated walk 2. Muscle weakness 3. Difficulty in speech 4. Drowsiness 5. Hearing loss
A person with a CNS tumor located in the cerebellum will likely experience the following symptoms: 1. Vomiting 2. Headache 3. Uncoordinated muscle movement 4. Problems in walking
Parietal lobe tumors/cancer will likely present the patient with: - Seizures - Speech disturbance - Loss ability to write
An occipital lobe tumor very likely will present with: Blindness and seizures
One sided paralysis due to CNS tumor, is most likely found in which lobe? Frontal lobe
What is the most common symptom of a Supratentorial tumor? Symptoms of raised ICP
Papilloedema, seizures, raised ICP, and focal neurological deficits, are seen in what type of brain tumors? Supratentorial tumors
Posterior fossa tumours main symptoms are: Nausea and vomiting
Which brain tumors are often seen with Pyramidal signs? Brain stem tumors
What are the top 3 symptoms of Brain stem tumors? 1. Abnormal gait and coordination difficulties 2. Cranial nerve palsies 3. Pyramidal signs
Spinal cord tumors main clinical symptom is: Back pain
What brain tumors are located in the Corpus callosum? Astrocytoma and Oligodendroglioma
Which brain tumors are located in the Cerebral hemisphere? Astrocytoma, Meningioma, Oligodendroglioma, and Ependymoma.
Brain tumors in the ventricles: Ependymoma, Choroid plexus papilloma, and Subependymoma
Where is the common location for a hemangioblastoma? Cerebellum
Created by: rakomi
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