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Genetics Review- 7

Principles of Genetics

Heredity The passing of physical characteristics from parents to offspring.
Genetics The study of genes or inheritable traits passed on from one generation of an organism to the next.
Gene A section of the DNA molecule that will code for a particular inheritable trait.
DNA The genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed on from parent to offspring.
What is DNA composed of? Many building blocks known as nucleotides.
What is a nucleotide made up of? A phosphate, a 5-carbon sugar and a nitrogen base.
What does the sequences of nitrogen bases code for? The production of Amino Acids.
What are the building blocks of proteins called? Amino Acids
The production of amino acids will create larger proteins which in turn will develop into what? Inheritable trait.
What is DNA also called? A Double Helix (2-sided molecule).
What is the backbone of the DNA called and what is its function? Sugar-phosphate spine. It gives the molecule stability.
What are the names of the four Nitrogen Bases found in DNA? Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), Adenine (A), Thymine (T)
Meiosis The creation of sex cells (egg or sperm) which contain ½ of the genetic information of an organism.
How many genes does each organism receive for each trait? 2. One from the male (sperm) and one from the female (egg).
Alleles Different forms of a gene.
Dominant Allele An allele that can hide or mask another allele. -- Represented by a Capital Letter. --Ex. Brown Hair = B
Recessive Allele An allele which is hidden by a dominant allele. -- Represented by a lower case letter. --Ex. Blond hair = b
Created by: miagi78