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Neurology

FA complete review Part 3.1 Pathology

QuestionAnswer
What is the consequence of frontal lobe lesion? Disinhibition and deficits in concentration, orientation, judgement
What is a possible secondary result of frontal lobe lesion? Reemergence of primitive reflexes
What kind of brain lesion may lead to reemerge of primitive reflexes? Frontal lobe
Disinhibition and deficits in concentration, orientation, and judgement is caused aftera ___________ ____________ lesion. Frontal lobe lesion
What are the consequences Frontal eye fields lesions? Eyes look toward (destructive) side of lesion. In seizures (irritative), eyes look away from side of the lesion
Is it classified as destructive or irritative, a frontal eye field lesion, if the eyes look to the side of lesion? Destructive
Irritative frontal eye field lesion: Seizures, eyes look away from side of the lesion
What are the two types of Frontal eye field lesions? Destructive and Irritative
How are the eyes deviated in a irritative frontal eye field lesion? Away from the side of lesion
If the eyes of a patient with a frontal eye field lesions are deviated toward the side of the lesion, is it a destructive or irritative injury? Destructive
Consequence of Paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF) lesion? Eyes look away from side of lesion
What is an example of an Paramedian Pontine Reticular formation lesion? Ipsilateral gaze palsy
What is Ipsilateral gaze palsy? The inability to look toward side of lesion due to PPRF lesion
Which area of the brain is injured in Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia? Medial longitudinal fasciculus
Injured Medial Longitudinal fasciculus lead to development of: Internuclear ophthalmoplegia
What is Internuclear ophthalmoplegia? Impaired adduction of ipsilateral eye + nystagmus of contralateral eye with abduction
What are the two main clinical pathological components of Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia? 1. Impaired adduction if ipsilateral eye 2. Nystagmus of contralateral eye with abduction
What conditoin is often associated with injury to the MLF? Multiple Sclerosis
What is the ophthalmic condition associated with MS? Internuclear ophthalmoplegia
Which area of the brain is damaged or injured in Gerstmann syndrome? Dominant parietal cortex
What condition is seen to develop by injury to the dominant parietal cortex? Gerstmann syndrome
What are the clinical consequences of Dominant parietal cortex injury? Agraphia, acalculia, finger agnosia, left-right disorientation
A person with trouble writing, simple calculations, and not seem to recognise fingers. Dx? Gerstmann syndrome
Male accountant that after a severe car accident develops inability to carry simple mathematical calculations. What is the most likely area of the brain that was injured? Dominant parietal cortex
What condition is often seen in a person that can't distinguish the LEFT Index finger, by side or name? Gerstmann syndrome
What are the clinical consequences of lesion to the Non-dominant parietal cortex? Agnosia of the contralateral side of the world
Ignoring the right side of the world, is a result of: Left sided non-dominant parietal cortex lesion
What is the syndrome developed by injury to the non-dominant parietal cortex of the brain? Hemispatial neglect syndrome
Hemispace neglect syndrome is due to: Damage to Non-dominant parietal cortex
Are the clinical consequences of Non-dominant parietal cortex injury, ipsilateral or contralateral? Contralateral
What are the clinical signs or consequences of the Hippocampus? Anterograde amnesia
What is anterograde amnesia? Inability to make new memories
Inability to create or make new memories Anterograde amnesia
What area of the brain is injured if the patient develops anterograde amnesia? Hippocampus
What are the clinical features seen in injured basal ganglia? Tremor at rest, chorea, and athetosis
Which conditions are associated with Basal ganglia damage or lesion? Parkinson disease and Huntington disease
Which part of area is damaged or with lesion in Parkinson's or Huntington's disease? Basal ganglia
What is the main consequence of Subthalamic nucleus damage? Contralateral hemiballismus
What ishte result of right-sided Subthalamic nucleus damage? Left side hemiballismus
Contralateral or Ipsilateral, the hemiballismus caused by damage to the Subthalamic nucleus? Contralateral
Contralateral hemiballismus is probably due to: Injured Subthalamic nucleus
What is the main associated syndrome due to lesion to the Mammary bodies? Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
What are the clinical characteristics of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome? Confusion, Ataxia, Nystagmus Ophthalmoplegia Memory loss (anterograde and retrograde), Confabulation, and, Personality changes
What type of memory loss is seen in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome? Anterograde and Retrograde amnesia
Alcoholic patient in ER severely confused, difficulty walking, with no memory of the reason he was in the park, and creating a ever changing story. Dx? Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
What part of the brain is injured n Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome? Mammillary bodies
What is the associated syndrome with lesioned Amygdala? Kluver-Bucy syndrome
What are the key features of Kluver-Bucy syndrome? Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, and hyperorality
Obese woman with Hx of multiple STIs and a online-channel for adults in which practices oral sex to multiple men. What type of brain physical damage can explain her risky behavior? Lesion to amygdala developing Kluver-Bucy syndrome
What viral infection-condition is associated with Kluver-Bucy syndrome? HSV-1 encephalitis
What important condition is due to Dorsal midbrain injury? Parinaud syndrome
What is the Parinaud syndrome? Vertical gaze palsy, pupillary light-near dissociation, lid retraction, convergence-retraction nystagmus
What palsy is seen in Parinaud syndrome? Vertical gaze palsy
Vertical gaze palsy + lid retraction + dorsal midbrain lesion. Dx? Parinaud syndrome
What events or conditions can provoke an lesion to the Dorsal midbrain? Stroke, hydrocephalus, and pinealoma.
What area of the brain may result damaged in a person with a Pinealoma? Dorsal midbrain
What brain area is injured in Parinaud syndrome? Dorsal midbrain
What is seen in Reticular activating system (midbrain)? Reduced levels of arousal and wakefulness
A person in coma, is seen what kind of brain lesion (area)? Reticular activating system (midbrain)
What are the most common consequences of lesion of the Cerebellar hemisphere? Intention tremor, limb ataxia, and loss of balance
Damage to the cerebellum causes what type of deficits? Ipsilateral
A person with damage to right side of cerebellum most likely will fall ---> Toward side of lesion (right side)
Cerebellar hemispheres are _________________ located. Laterally
A person with tendency to fall to right rise, most likely present what kind of cerebellar hemisphere injury? Damage to the right cerebellar hemisphere
Which has worst prognosis, decorticate or decerebrate posturing? Decerebrate
What are the two types of injury to the Red nucleus? 1. Decorticate posturing 2. Decerebrate posturing
Another way to refer to Decorticate posturing? Flexor posturing
How else is Decerebrate posturing referred as? Extensor posturing
Extensor posturing = Decerebrate postring
Flexor posturing = Decorticate posturing
What area of the brain is injured in decorticate/decerebrate posturing? Red nucleus
Description of Decorticate posturing? Lesion above red nucleus, presents with flexion of upper extremities and extension of lower extremities
Lesion at or below the red nucleus Decerebrate posturing
Decorticate posturing is due to lesion ---> Above red nucleus
Decerebrate posturing is due to lesion ---> At or below red nucleus
How is decerebrate posturing presented clinically? Extension of upper and lower extremities
How is Decorticate posturing presented clinically? Flexion of upper extremities and extension of lower extremities
If lower and upper extremities are extended, is it decerebrate or decorticate? Decerebrate
Upper extremities flexioned + Lower extremities extended; Decerebrate or Decorticate? Decorticate
Consequence of Cerebellar vermis Truncal ataxia and dysarthria
Description of Truncal ataxia due to Cerebellar vermis lesion: Wide-based, "drunken sailor" gait
Cerebellar vermis is _________________ located. Centrally
Central vermis lesioned ---> Affects central body
What action is associated with degeneration of cerebellar vermis? Chronic alcohol use
How long after initial event of an ischemic brain stroke, does the damage is irreversible? After 5 minutes of hypoxia
What brain areas are the most susceptible to ischemic brain stroke/disease? Hippocampus, neocortex, cerebellum, and watershed areas
What cells of the Cerebellum are known to be severely affected in an ischemic brain disease/stroke? Purkinje cells
What area of the brain is the MOST vulnerable to ischemic hypoxia? Hippocampus
What kind of imaging is done in an stroke prior to administration of tPA? Noncontrast CT to exclude hemorrhage
Why is a non-contrast CT performed before giving tPA to a stroke victim? To exclude hemorrhage
What is detected in a CT of a stroke patient? Ischemic changes in 6-24 hours
What is the purpose of Diffusion-weighted MRI in a person with a stroke? Detect ischemia within 3-30 minutes
What are the histologic features of a stroke within 12-24 from initial ischemic event? 1. Eosinophilic cytoplasm 2. Pyknotic nuclei (red neurons)
Time frame after initial ischemic event of stroke in which red neurons appear histologically? 12-24 hours
What are the "red neurons"? Neurons affected by ischemic brain event in the first 12-24 hours, that have pyknotic nuclei
Histologic features of an ischemic attack after 24-72 hours form initial event? Necrosis + neutrophils
How soon can neutrophils be seen in an ischemic brain event? 24-72 hours
The histological examination of a person with an recent ischemic brain event shows necrosis and neutrophils. What is the approximate timeframe? 24-72 hours from initial event
Time in which macrophages (microglia) apperats after initial ischemic brain event? 3-5 days
What histological features is seen around 3-5 days after initial ischemic brain event? Macrophages (microglia)
What cells are involved in Reactive gliosis? Astrocytes
What are the histological findings in a stroke victim after 1-2 weeks form initial ischemic event? 1. Reactive gliosis (astrocytes) 2. Vascular proliferation
Approximate time in which pathologist can see reactive gliosis in an ischemic brain attack victim? 1-2 weeks from initial event
Vascular proliferation is seen after __________________ from initial ischemic event. 1-2 weeks
A Glial scar is seen after _______________- from initial ischemic brain event. > 2 weeks
How long after initial ischemic attack, is a glial scar hisotoligally found? > 2 weeks
(+) Red neurons ---> Initial histological finding after a ischemic brain event, alongside with an eosinophilic cytoplasm.
What is the definition of an Ischemic stroke? Acute blockage of vessels leading to disruption of blood flow and subsequent ischemia, ultimately producing liquefactive necrosis
What type of necrosis is achieved by an ischemic stroke? Liquefactive necrosis
What kind of necrosis is found in a patient suffering of an ischemic stroke? Liquefactive necrosis
Acute blockage of brain blood vessels leading to a disruption of blood flow in the brain and causing ischemia. Ischemic stroke
What are the 3 types of ischemic strokes? 1. Thrombotic 2. Embolic 3. Hypoxic
Thrombotic ischemic stroke: Due to a clot forming directly at site of infaction, usually over an athrosclerotic plaque
What arterial body is commonly affected by development of an Thrombotic ischemic stroke? MCA
What is the most likely cause of an Embolic stroke? Embolus from another part of the body obstruct the brain vessel.
Which type of ischemic stroke is known to affect multiple vascular territories? Embolic
What are conditions that are associated with the development of an Embolic ischemic stroke? Atrial fibrillation, carotid artery stenosis, DVT with patent foramen ovale.
What is the most common cause for a Hypoxic ischemic stroke? Hypoperfusion or hypoxemia
Which is common type of ischemic stroke that develops during cardiovascular surgeries? Hypoxic
What areas are most affected or more commonly affected by a Hypoxic ischemic stroke? Watershed areas
When is tPA used in treating an ischemic stroke? - Within 3.-4.5 hours of onset - No hemorrhage/risk of hemorrhage
A patient with with an ischemic stroke that stated 5 hours ago, that has no signs of hemorrhage, should be treated with tPA? No, tPA administration should be only within 3-4.5 hours from onset.
What medications are known to reduce risk of developing an ischemic stroke? Aspirin and Clopidogrel
Brief, reversible episode of focal neurologic dysfunction without acute infarction, with majority resolving in < 15 minutes. Transient ischemic attack
The deficits seen in TIA are due to: Focal ischemia
Most TIAs are resolved (time): < 15 minutes
What is Neonatal Intraventricular hemorrhage? Bleeding into ventricles in neonates
Which conditions of neonates increase risk Neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage? Prematurity and Low-birth-weight infants
Where do neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage originate? Germinal matrix, a highly vascularized layer within the subventricular zone.
A highly vascularized layer within the subventricular zone. Germinal matrix
What is the cause of Neonatal Intraventricular hemorrhage? Due to reduced glial fiber support and impaired autoregulation of BP in premature infants.
What clinical signs of NIH? Altered level of consciousness, bulging fontanelle, hypotension, seizures, and coma.
Reduced glial fiber support and impaired autoregulation of BP in premature infants. Dx? Neonatal Intraventricular Hemorrhage (NIH)
List of causes or types of Intracranial hemorrhage: 1. Epidural hematoma 2. Subdural hematoma 3 .Subarachnoid hemorrhage 4. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage
What is the MCC of Epidural hematoma? Rupture of middle meningeal artery, often secondary to skull fracture involving the pterion.
Common branch of the Maxillary artery involved in Epidural hematoma? Middle Meningeal artery
What is the Pterion? Thinnest areal of the lateral skull
A blow to the lateral side of the skull, rupturing the MMA. Dx? Epidural hematoma
Which type f intracranial hematoma is seen with an "lucid interval"? Epidural hematoma
Scalp hematoma and rapid intracranial expansion under systemic arterial pressure causing transtentorial herniation, and CN III palsy? Epidural hematoma
Which type of intracranial hemorrhage is associated with development of Transtentorial herniation and CN III palsy? Epidural hematoma
What is shown in CT on an Epidural hematoma? Biconvex (lentiform), hyperdense blood collection not crossing suture lines
CT --> Hyperdense blood collection not crossing suture lines. Dx? Epidural hematoma
CT--> Biconvex (lentiform) blood collection Epidural hematoma
What is the MCC of Subdural hematoma? Rupture of bridging veins
What condition is due to the rupture of bridging veins? Subdural hematoma
What are acute causes of a Subdural hematoma? Traumatic, high-energy impact --> hyperdense of CT
What are the chronic causes of a Subdural hematoma? Mild trauma, cerebral atrophy, elderly, alcoholism --> hypodense on CT
If the CT of an Subdural hematoma shows a hypodense image is it chronic or acute cause? Chronic
What infant condition is associated with developing Subdural hematoma? Shaken babies
A baby abused by shaken, may develop what type of intracranial hematoma? Subdural hematoma
What are predisposing factors of Subdural hematoma? Brain atrophy and trauma
Crescent-shaped hemorrhage that crosses suture lines on CT. Dx? Subdural hematoma
Lentiform or Crescent-shaped on CT of Subdural hematoma. Crescent
Lentiform or Crescent-shaped on CT of Epidural hematoma. Lentiform
What is a Subarachnoid hemorrhage? Bleeding due to trauma, or rupture of an aneurysm or AVM.
What is the intracranial hemorrhage due to rupture of an aneurysm? Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Patients complain of "worst headache of my life". Dx? Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Bloody or yellow spinal tap. Dx? Subarachnoid hemorrhage
What condition is seen with a xanthochromic spinal tap? Subarachnoid hemorrhage
What is a serious complication of Subarachnoid hemorrhage? - Vasospasm due to blood breakdown, or - Rebleed 3-10 days after hemorrhage
What medication or drug is used to prevent vasospasm due to Subarachnoid hemorrhage? Nimodipine
Why is Nimodipine used in Subarachnoid hemorrhage? It used to prevent/reduce vasospasm due to SAH.
What are conditions that have increased risk of developing in a patient with SAH? Communicating and/or obstructive hydrocephalus
What is the MCC of intraparenchymal hemorrhage? Systemic hypertension
What are conditions associated with developing an intraparenchymal hemorrhage? Amyloid angiopathy, vasculitis, neoplasm.
What are the most common causes of hypertensive hemorrhages in the brain? Charcot-Bouchard microaneurysm
Where do most Charcot-Bouchard microaneurysm occur? Putamen of basal ganglia
What are the vessels most likely affected in Charcot-Bouchard microaneurysms? Lenticulostriate vessels
Other than the Putamen of basal ganglia, where else is common to Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms? Thalamus, pons, and cerebellum,
Intraparenchymal hemorrhage due to amyloid angiopathy presents with: Recurrent lobar hemorrhagic stroke in elderly
If a stroke affects the Middle Cerebral artery, which area(s) of the brain are most affected? 1. Motor and sensory cortices-- upper limb and face 2. Temporal lobe (Wernicke area); 3. Frontal lobe (Broca area)
Which arterial body is most likely affected if the patient presents with contralateral paralysis and sensory loss of face and upper limb? MCA
What ophthalmological deficit is associated with Wernicke aphasia? Right superior quadrant visual field defect due to temporal lobe involvement
Which anterior brain circulation artery if suffers a stroke affects the Wernicke and Broca areas? MCA
What area of lesion in a stroke affecting the Anterior cerebral artery? Motor and sensory cortices --- lower limb
Arterial body affected in a stroke that presents with contralateral paralysis and sensory loss of the lower limb and with urinary incontine? ACA
ACA occlusion/stroke affects the ----> Contralateral legs
MCA occlusion/stroke affects the ---> Contralateral face and arms
What are the clinical signs presented if a patient suffers a right ACA stroke? Left motor paralysis and sensory loss of lower extremity.
A patient presents with left sided face and left side arm numbness and difficulty moving it. What arterial body most lifkely has been affecred by a stroke? MCA
Areas of lesion of a Lenticulostriate artery stroke? Striatum and internal capsule
Areas affected: Striatum and Internal capsule. What is the most likely stroke? Lenticulostriate artery stroke
What are the symptoms of Lenticulostriate artery stroke? 1. Contralateral paralysis 2. Absence of cortical signs
What is a common location for Lacunar infarcts due to hyaline arteriosclerosis secondary to uncontrolled hypertension? Lenticulostriate artery
What is the reason of Lacunar infarcts? Hyaline arteriosclerosis secondary to uncontrolled hypertension
How would the absence of cortical signs present as? Neglect, aphasia, and visual field loss
What arterial bodies compose the anterior circulation of the brain? 1. MCA 2. ACA 3. Lenticulostriate artery
Main stroke related posterior brain circulation arteries: 1. Anterior spinal artery 2. Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) 3. Anterior Inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)
What structures are affected by Anterior spinal artery stroke/occlusion? 1. Lateral corticospinal tract 2. Medial lemniscus 3. Caudal medulla - hypoglossal nerve
Clinical features of Anterior spinal artery stroke affecting the Lateral corticospinal tract: Contralateral paralysis -- Upper and Lower limbs
How is a ASA stroke affecting the lateral corticospinal tract different to a MCA or ACA stroke? ASA stroke to the lateral corticospinal tract, affects both legs and arms of the contralateral side, while ACA affects contralateral leg, and MCA contralateral face and arm.
What area affected in a ASA stroke causes a decrease in contralateral proprioception? Medial lemniscus
What is the symptom that indicated medial lemniscus injury in an ASA stroke? Decrease contralateral proprioception
What is the consequence of ASA stroke affecting the Cauda medulla (Hypoglossal nerve)? Ipsilateral hypoglossal dysfunction with causes tongue deviation ipsilateral
Ipsilateral or Contralateral. Tongue deviation in ASA stroke. Ipsilateral
Which cranial nerve is involved with an ASA stroke? Hypoglossal nerve
What is the common syndrome associated with Anterior spinal artery stroke? Medial Medullary syndrome
What is the cause of Medial medullary syndrome? Infarct of Paramedian branches of ASA and/or vertebral arteries
Infarct to the branches of the ASA and/or vertebral arteries. Dx? Medial Medullary syndrome
Associated affected artery in Medial medullary syndrome? Anterior Spinal artery
Associated syndrome of due to occlusion/stroke of the PICA? Lateral medullary syndrome
What is another way to refer to Lateral medullary syndrome? Wallenberg syndrome
What are the 5 main areas of lesion in occlusion/stroke of the Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA)? 1. Lateral medulla: Nucleus ambiguus (IX, X, XI) 2. Vestibular nuclei 3. Lateral spinothalamic tract, spinal trigeminal nucleus 4. Sympathetic fibers 5. Inferior cerebellar peduncle
What is the clinical result of PICA occlusion affecting the Lateral medulla? Dysphagia, hoarseness, decreased gag reflex, and hiccups
What area is affected in PICA occlusion that lead to symptoms of dysphagia, decreased gag reflex, hoarseness, and hiccups? Latear medulla (nucleus ambiguus CN IX, X, XI)
Affecting the vestibular nucleus in PICA occlusion is presented with: Vomiting, vertigo, and nystagmus
What are is there result of damage to the Lateral spinothalamic tract and spinal trigeminal nucleus in PICA stroke? Decreased pain and temperature sensation from contralateral body, and ipsilateral face
What part of the face losses sensation in PICA occlusion? Ipsilateral
What are the clinical effects of affects of the inferior cerebellar peduncle, due to PICA occlusion? Ipsilateral ataxia and dysmetria
What is the Lateral medullary (Wallenberg) syndrome? Condition due to PICA stroke/occlusion.
What are the main clinical effects Wallenberg syndrome? Nucleus ambiguus effects such as dysphagia, hoarseness, decreased gag reflex, and hiccups.
What is affected in PICA occlusion that leads to development of Ipsilateral Horner syndrome? Sympathetic fibers
What areas are affected by AICA stroke/ occlusion? 1. Lateral pons: Facial nucleus 2. Vestibular nuclei 3. Spinothalamic tract, spinal trigeminal nucleus 4. Sympathetic fibers 5. Middle and inferior cerebellar peduncles 6. Labyrinthine artery
What artery is affected in AICA occlusion that leads to deafness and vertigo? Labyrinthine artery
What is the syndrome associated with AICA occlusion or stroke? Lateral pontine syndrome
Lateral pontine syndrome. Associated with what cerebral artery? AICA
Lateral medullary (Wallenberg) syndrome. Associated with ____________ occlusion. PICA
Medial medullary syndrome. Associated with deficits in which posterior circulation cerebral artery? Anterior spinal artery (ASA)
What deficits give Lateral Pontine syndrome its main symptoms? Facial nucleus effects such as: Paralysis of face, decreased lacrimation, salivation , and taste from anterior 2/3 tongue.
What are the clinical effects of defects in the Facial nucleus? - Paralysis of face - Decreased lacrimation, salivation, - Decreased taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue
Which syndrome is associated with the development of a "facial droop" and decreased lacrimation, salivation, and taste of anterior 2/3 of tongue? Lateral pontine syndrome
What are the symptoms due to deficits to the Labyrinthine artery in AICA occlusion? Ipsilateral sensorineural deafness and vertigo
What are the effects of damage to the Spinothalamic tract, and spinal trigeminal nucleus? Decreased pain and temperature sensation from contralateral body, and ipsilateral face
What areas are affected by occlusion of the Basilar artery? 1. Pons, medulla, lower midbrain 2. Corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts 3. Ocular cranial nerve nuclei, paramedian pontine reticular formation
What is the associated condition with a Basilar artery stroke? Locked-in syndrome
Locked-in syndrome is due to occlusion/stroke to which artery? Basilar artery
What are the significant symptoms in Locked-In syndrome? 1. Preserved consciousness 2. Quadriplegia 3. Loss of voluntary facial, mouth, and tongue movements 4. Loss of horizontal, but not vertical, eye movements
What area is lesioned in Locked in syndrome, that causes the movement defectis? Corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts
Which tracts are affected in Locked in syndrome? Corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts
Patient in bed, unable to speak, move, or make facial grimaces. Communicates only by vertical eye movements, and is conscious of surrounding. Dx? Locked-in syndrome
Locked-In syndrome associated artery? Basilar artery
If the PCA is occluded or suffers a stroke, what area of the brain is lesioned? Occipital lobe
If the occipital lobe is damaged due to ischemia, which is the most likely obstructed/occluded arterial body? PCA
What are the common symptoms of PCA occlusion? 1. Contralateral hemianopia with macular sparing 2. Alexia without agraphia
What is "Alexia without agraphia"? Dramatic disorder of higher visual function in which patients can still write but are unable to read.
What artery is at suspicion of occlusion if a patient can write, but is unable to read? PCA
Higher visual function in which patients can still write but can't read. Alexia without agraphia
What Cerebral Posterior circulation artery, if obstructed or suffer an stroke, causes contralateral hemianopia with macular sparing? PCA
What is Central Post-stroke pain syndrome? Neuropathic pain due to thalamic lesions
What it the initial course of Central post-stroke pain syndrome? Paresthesias followed in weeks to moth by allodynia and dysesthesia on the contralateral side.
What is allodynia? It is when a patient that experiences ordinarly painless stimuli causes him/her pain.
Extreme, exaggerated, not fictional but intense sensation of pain, in stimuli that commonly is painless. Allodynia
Contralateral or Ipsilateral. The dysesthesia seen in Central post-stroke pain syndrome. Contralateral
What causes Diffuse axonal injury? Traumatic shearing forces furin rapid acceleration and/or deceleration of the brain.
What is a common example of something that causes diffuse axonal injury? Motor Vehicle accident (MVA)
What are the severe results of diffuse axonal injury? Coma or persistent vegetative state
Which condition is known to show multiple lesions (punctate hemorrhages) involving the white matter tracts? Diffuse axonal injury
Created by: rakomi
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