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What occurs in the germinal centers of lymph nodes? Isotype switching (from IgM to other types)
The inflammation in type IV HS reactions is mediated by> T lymphocytes Through cytokine release, CD8+ cytotoxicity and macrophage recruitment.
The presence of anti-HBc and anti-HBs antibodies in the serum without detectable viral antigens indicates> Recovery from Hepatitis B infection.
Antibodies present in patients vaccinated against HB HBsAb
Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction Usually mild, occur >24 hours post transfusion in patients previously exposed to a minor RBC antigen.
Inactivated, killed or component viral vaccines prevent> Type of response> Viral entry into the cell Humoral response
Live attenuated viral vaccines> Type of response> Kill virally infected cells Strong cell-mediated response (+humoral immunity)
Immunosuppressants that work by inhibiting Calcineurin> Cyclosporin and tacrolimus
Is an essential protein in the activation of IL-2 which promotes the growth and differentiation of T cells Calcineurin
Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) proteins are necessary for> Loading of cytoplasmic proteins into MHC complex class I molecules.
Elevated blood glucose effects on a healing wound> Glucose stimulates release of ROS and proinflamatory cytokines, inhibition of production of anti-inflamatory cytokines like IL-10 and growth factors needed for fibroblast proliferation and reepithelization.
Reactive, atypical lymphocytes Diagnostic of> Activated, pathogen specific cytotoxic T cells or NK cells that form in response to certain intracellular infections. Contain cytotoxic granules composed of perforin. EBV
Immunoglobin inclusions Can be seen in plasma cell malignancies like MM
Negative selection of T cell maduration> Where does it take place? Process of elimination of T cells that bind with overly high affinity to self MHC or self antigens. Thymic medulla
Positive T cell selection is responsible for> Development of a T cell repertoire that can recognize itself.
They bind to the invariant region of the MHC II complex of APCs without being processed or internalized> Superantigens TSS
Endotoxin can cause rapid onset fever and hypotension due to activation of> Toll like receptors (TLRs) on cells of the innate immune system
This vaccine is poorly immunogenic in children due to their immature humoral antibody response> Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
This vaccines cause a strong immune response in children due to recruitment of both B and T cells. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines
Hyperacute transplant rejection is caused by> Preformed antibodies in the recipient that recognize and attack donor antigens. Often anti-ABO or anti-HLA antibodies.
Mutations of this receptor prevents apoptosis of autoreactive lymphocytes increasing the risk of autoimmune disorders like SLE Fas/ Fas ligand
Many types of cancer evade immunodetection by increasing expression of> Programed cell death ligand 1 (PD1) It downregulates immune response by inhibiting cytotoxic T cells.
Created by: Laymar
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