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Unit 3 Kammerman

AP Government Unit 3 Chapters 12 13, 14, 15, 16 Wilson and Sabbato

527's Nonprofit and unregulated interest groups that foucs on specific causes or policy positions and attempt to influence voters. Organizations that engage in political activity through soft money to back or refute a candidate
Agenda Setting The constant process of forming the list of issues to be addressed by the government
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 Largely banned party soft money, restored a long-standing prohibition or corporations and labor unions for using genereal treasury funds for electoral purposes, and narrowed the definition of issue advocacy
Buckley v. Valeo In 1976, the Supreme Court decided limiting the amount that a candidate could spend on his/her own campaign was unconstitutional. Freedom of speech
Campaign Reform Act of 1974 Created the FEC, All contributions over $100 disclosed, no foreign contributions, est of PAC's (500 per cand), individual contributions (1000 per candidate), pres elections: fed matching funds to primary cand's and federal funding during general elections
Caucus A meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform A meeting of political party members to conduct party business
Closed Primaries A Primary election in which only a party's registered voters are eligible to vote
Coattail Effect The boost that candidates may get in an election because of the popularity of candidates above them on the ballot, especially the president The tendency for a popular party leader to attract votes for other candidates of the same party in election
Dealignment A movement among voters toward nonpartisanship, resulting in a weakening of party structure. A general decline in partisan identification and loyalty in the electorate
Democratic Republican Party One of the first American political parties. In the 1820's split into the Democratic and Whigs. Believed that a strong federal gov would weaken and not respect the rights of the states and people
Divided Government The political condition in which different political parties control the White House and Congress
Era of Good Feelings The years following the War of 1812 where there was a lack of partisan political strife
Frontloading The tendency of states to chose an early date on the primary calendarThe practice of scheduling presidential primaries early in the campaign. This pushes super tuesday (large number of presidential caucuses) forward
General Election Election in which voters decide which candidates will actually fill elective public offices
Gerrymandering When a state tries to redraw its districts so that a political party/candidate is favored
Gridlock A complete lack of movement or progress resulting in a backup or stagnation
Hard Money Money raised and spent by individuals, PACs, or party committes for specific political candidates
Incumbent Currently holding office, incumbents have an advantage over challengers in election campaigns because voters are more familiar with them, and incumbents are more recognizable
Linkage Institutions Ex: Political Parties, Interest Groups, Media, etc. that provide a link between either the branches of government and/or the government and the peoople
Open Primaries A primary in which party members, independents, and sometimes members of the other party are allowed to vote
Political Action Committees Organizations dedicated to raising and spending money to either elect or defeat political candidates. Most PACs are directly connected to specific corporations, labor groups, or recognized political parties.
Presidential Debates During presidential elections the main candidates debate. The topics are most often the controversial issues of the time, and some elections have even been decided by debates (e.g. Nixon vs. Kennedy)
Proportional Representation A voting system that apportions legislative seats according to the percentage of the vote won by a particular candidate
Plurality When people win just because they have more votes than the other candidate, not necessarily the majority. Less than 50% of the votes but the candidate still has more than anyone else
Blogs - note their power - people can create something everyone reads - new way to get information - how do we react? .. impact .. people can create news themselves .. Editorial outlet for everyday people - part of new media
McGovern-Fraser Commission Committee formed after 1968 Democratic National Convention (protesting, riots, etc. made democrats look bad and un-unified). They needed to make changes to procedure Cont. on page 484
Critical Realigning Election Mark a major shift in the majority party in DC (1932, 1800, 1860. page 428)
Federal Communications Commission Equal Time Rule, Fairness Doctrine, and Right to Reply Rule. Designed to govern radio and television/public airwaves
Populist Party Short-lived political party in the late 19th century that flourished among western farmers in their opposition to the gold standard
Roosevelt Coalition People who helped elect FDR. New group who came together to elect a democrat. 1932 Election --> realigning election when they ushered him in
Single Member Districts One person who represents the district
"Solid South" The southern states voted ONLY Democratic (even in local elections) then switched over to Republican
Soft Money The virtually unregulated money funneled by individuals and political committees through state and local parties
Straight Ticket A ballot cast for all the candidates of one party
Superdelegates Party leaders and elected officials who become delegates to the national convention without having to run in primaries or caucuses. Delegate slot to the Democratic party's national convention that is reserved for a elected party official.
Ticket Splitting A ballot cast for some of the candidates of one party and some of the other
Whig Party Established in 1834, it was a response to the authoritarian policies of Andrew Jackson. They supported the supremacy of Congress and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism.
Winner-Take-All Electoral System An electoral system in which the party that recieves at least one more vote than any other party wins the election
Class Action Lawsuit Lawsuits that are filed where people who feel wronged all come together to act as a plaintiff and sue someone
Confidentiality of Sources The idea of keeping your source anonymous/confidential if requested. Some states have shield laws to protect their journalists. Example: Judith Miller of the New York Times
Electioneering Act of trying to get a candidate into Congress and to influence the voters
Equal Time Rule A rule of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) stating that if a broadcaster sells time to one candidate for office, he or she must be willing to sell equal time to opposing candidates
Fairness Doctrine Rule in effect from 1949-1985 requiring broadcasters to cover events adequately and to present contrasting views on important public issues. A rule of the FCC that required broadcasters to give time to opposing views if they broadcast one side
Foundation Grants When large companies donate money to certain campaigns or political figures or organizations
"Fourth Branch" The media or the people, like interest groups
Free Rider Problem People reaping the benefits of a group without actually being a member. For example: AARP
Lobbying The activities of a group or organization that seeks to influence legislation and persuade political leaders to support the groups position
Press Secretary The individual charged with interacting and communication with journalists on a daily basis
Prior Restraint Constitutional doctrine that prevents the government from prohibiting speech or publication before the fact; generally held to be in violation of the First Amendment
Public Interest Groups An organization that seeks a collective good that will not selectively and materially benefit the members of the group
Political Interest Groups A group that shares interest in goals, has organizational structure and has a desire to influence political policy; differ from parties because membership base narrower and more focused on policy issues while parties focus on elections
Revolving Door A member of Congress who doesn't get reelected and goes to work for an interest group and vice versa. Obama is trying to reduce their influence
Right of Reply Rule A rule of the FCC that if a person is attacked on a broadcast (other than in a regular news program), that person has the right to reply over the same station
Sound Bites A brief memorable statement no longer than a few seconds used on radio or television news broadcasts
Spin Doctor A political campaign adviser who tries to convince journalists of the truth of a particular interpretation of events
Union Shop Company in order to be hired you have to be a member of the union
White House Press Corps Reporters assigned to cover the White House every day
Bias An inclination or a preference that interferes with impartial judgement
"Ratings Game" Interest groups can rate candidates/members of Congress. It's a quick snapshot of the candidate that will hopefully influence their voting.
Created by: msinger67



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