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Ch 13

Intravenous Therapy

ABO system method by which blood is identified as one of four blood types: A, B, AB, or O
Albumin a large plasma protein that does not normally move across semipermeable membranes like those in capillaries -most abundant protein in plasma
Blood products components extracted from blood and administered to clients who need specific blood substances but not all the fluid and cellular components in whole blood
Blood substitutes fluid emulsion, a mixture of two liquids, one of which is insoluble but remains dispersed in the other, that carries and distributes oxygen to cells, tissues, and organs.
Central venous sites those that deliver solutions into a large central vein, such as the superior vena cava
Coagulopathies bleeding disorders that involve platelets or clotting factors
Colloid solutions solutions containing water and molecules of suspended substances such as blood cells and blood products
Drop factors ratio of drops to millimeter delivered by tubing in the administration of IV solution
Drop size volume of IV fluid determined by the opening in the tubing
Electronic infusion device machine that regulates and monitors the administration of IV solutions
Emulsion mixture of two liquids, one of which is insoluble in the other: when combined, the two are distributed throughout the mixture as small, undissolved droplets
Hypertonic solution solution that is more concentrated than body fluid and draws fluid into the intravascular compartment from the more dilute areas within the cells and interstitial spaces
Hypotonic solution solution that contains fewer dissolved in comparison with plasma and is effective in rehydrating clients experiencing fluid deficits
Infusion pump device that exerts positive pressure to infuse IV solutions and adjusts the pressure according to the resistance it meets
In-line filter device that removes air bubbles as well as undissolved drugs, bacteria, and large molecules from an infusing solution
Intravenous (IV) therapy parenteral administration of fluids and additives into a vein
Isotonic solution solution containing the same concentration of dissolved substances normally found in plasma -used to maintain fluid balance when clients temporarily cannot eat or drink
Macrodrip tubing intravenous tubing that releases large-sized drops of IV solution
Medication lock sealed chamber that allows intermittent access to a vein
Microdrip tubing intravenous tubing that releases small-sized drops of IV solution
Midline catheter peripherally inserted venous access device inserted from just above or below the antecubital area in the basilic, cephalic, or median cubital vein until the tip rests in the upper arm just short of the axilla
Oxygen therapeutics blood substitute that carries and distributes oxygen to cells, tissues, and organs
Packed cells blood solution that has most of the plasma (fluid) removed: used for clients who need cellular replacements but do not need and may be harmed by the administration of additional fluid
Peripheral venous sites superficial veins of the arm and hand -most common sites for infusing IV fluids
Phlebitis inflammation of the vein
Plasma liquid, or serum, portion of blood that does not contain blood cells
Plasma expanders non blood solutions that pull fluid into the vascular space and are used as an economical and virus-free substitute for blood and blood products
Platelets cell-like structures within blood that aggregate (clump together) and release chemicals that produce fibrin at the site of an injury
Pressure infusion sleeve device wrapped around an IV solution bag that exerts a squeezing action to facilitate rapid infusion
Primary tubing long tubing used to administer a large volume of IV solution over an extended period or a small volume through a medication lock
Rh factor protein surface marker on red blood cells
Salvaged blood blood collected and reinfused during surgery or shortly thereafter
Secondary tubing short intravenous tubing used to administer smaller volumes of solution through a port in the primary tubing
Thrombus formation development of a blood clot
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) hypertonic parenteral solution consisting of nutrients designed to meet nearly all of the caloric and nutritional needs of clients who are severely malnourished or cannot consume food or liquids for a long time
Universal donors person with type O blood
Universal recipients person with type AB blood
Unvented tubing type of intravenous tubing that does not draw air into a container of solution -used for solutions packaged in plastic bags
Venipuncture method for gaining access to the venous system by piercing a vein with one of various devices
Vented tubing intravenous tubing that draws air into a container of solution -used for administering solutions packaged in glass containers to facilitate their flow
Volumetric controller device that infuses IV solutions using gravity and compressing the tubing at a certain frequency to infuse the solution at a precise preset rate
Whole blood solution containing blood cells and plasma with preservative and anticoagulant added
Y-administration tubing intravenous tubing used to administer whole blood or packed cells that contains two branches: one for blood and one for isotonic (normal) saline
IV therapy may be indicated by which circumstances? -rapid drug effect required -PO is restricted -client cannot swallow -impaired GI absorption -continuous therapeutic blood level is desired
Examples of Isotonic solutions: -0.9% saline (NS) -5% dextrose in water (D5W) -Ringer's solution (Lactated Ringer's)
Examples of Hypotonic solutions: -0.45% sodium chloride (half-strength saline) -5% dextrose in 0.45% saline
Examples of Hypertonic solutions: -10% dextrose in water (D10W) -3% saline -20% dextrose in water
When are Crystalloid solutions used? used when there is need for the concentration to influence the osmotic distribution of body fluid
When are Colloid solutions used? used to replace circulating blood volume because the suspended molecules in the solutions pull fluid from other fluid compartments of the body
When is whole blood used? when the client needs fluid restoration and blood cells
Which clients are packed cells preferred for? -who need cellular replacement but may be harmed by additional fluid -examples: clients with adequate oral intake of fluid & clients at risk for heart & renal failure
Created by: ahoyyitbeaddi