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Neurology

FA complete review part 1 Embryology and Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
In terms of neural development, what does the Notochord induces? Overlying ectodem to diffentiate into neuroectodem and form neural plate.
What does the neural plate give rise to? Neural tube and Neural crest cells
What becomes of the Notochord in adults/ Nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disc
What was the preceding or "original" structure that later became the Nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs in adults? Notochord
The alar plate refers to the _____________ surface. Dorsal
The Basal plate of neural development refers to which surface? Ventral
The alar plate bires rise to the ____________________ part. Sensory
What does the Basar plate give rise to, sensory or motor parts? Motor
Basal plate (__________); _______________. Ventral; Motor
Which plate is the dorsal surface and gives rise to sensory part of the nervous system? Alar plate
Alar and Basal plate have the same orientation as the ___ ______________. Spinal cord
Neural development form Notochord to Neural crest cell development, occurs in which days of gestation? Day 18 to Day 21
What is the first part of the developing brain? Telencephalon
What is the second part of the developing brain? Diencephalon
After the Telencephalon and Diencephalon are developed, what are the next parts of the developing brain? Mesencephalon, Metencephalon, and Myelencephalon
What are the primary three vesicles of the developing brain? Forebrain, Midbrain, and Hindbrain
Another way to name the Forebrain? Procenphalon
Midbrain = Mesencephalon
What is the technical name for the Hindbrain? Rhombencephalon
What are the divisions of the Prosencephalon? Telencephalon and Diencephalon
What are the secondary vesicles of the developing brain? Telencephalon, Diencephalon, Mesencephalon, Metencephalon, and Myelencephalon.
The primary Midbrain becomes into which secondary vesicles? Mesencephalon only
The primary vesicle, Hindbrain, progresses into which secondary vesicles of the developing brain? Metencephalon and Myelencephalon
The Telencephalon is a derivative of which primary vesicle? Forebrain
Forebrain --> ___________________ ---> Thalamus, Hypothalamus, and Third ventricle. Diencephalon
WHat are the adult derivatives (walls) of the Telencephalon? Cerebral hemispheres
The lateral ventricles of the brain, are the adult cavity derivative of the ____________________. Telencephalon
What are the adult derivatives of the Telencephalon? Walls ----> Cerebral hemispheres Cavities --> Lateral ventricles
Adult derivatives of the Diencephalon: Walls ---> Thalamus and Hypothalamus Cavities ---> Third ventricle
Which are the wall derivatives of the Diencephalon? Thalamus and Hypothalamus
What is the primary vesicle that eventually gives rise to the Hypothalamus? Prosencephalon (Forebrain)
Adult derivatives of the Midbrain and later the Mesencephalon: Walls ---> Midbrain Cavities ---> Cerebral aqueduct
What are the two wall adult derivatives of the Metencephalon? Pons and Cerebellum
Upper part of the fourth ventricle is an adult derivative of which primary vesicle of the developing brain? Rhombencephalon (Hindbrain)
Hindbrain --> Myelencephalon ---------> Wall derivative? Medulla
What is the cavitiry adult derivative of the Myelencephalon? Lower part of the fourth ventricle
What are the secondary vesicles that derive the upper and lower part of the Fourth Ventricle, respectively? Metencephalon and Myelencephalon
Medulla of the brain is a wall adult derivative of which secondary vesicle of the developing brain? Myelencephalon
What cells are derived from Neuroepithelial in neural tube? CNS neurons, ependymal cells, Oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes
Which nervous system cells are of Neural crest origin? PNS neurons and Schwann cells
What is the precursor tissue of PNS neurons? Neural crest
The mesoderm derivatives into which CNS/PNS cells? Microglia
What is the precursor tissue of Schwann cells? Neural crest
CNS neurons are derived from: Neuroepithelial in neural tube
Where ar the ependymal cells located? Inner lining of ventricles
What is produced by the Ependymal cells? CSF
What cells line the inner ventricles of the brain? Ependymal cells
What embryological defects are due to neuropores fail to fuse by the 4th week of gestation? Neural tube defects
Persistent connection between amniotic cavity and spinal canal. Neural tube defects
What are some association oto neural tube defects? - Maternal diabetes - Low folic acid intake before conception and during pregnancy
Levels of AFP in amniotic fluid and maternal serum in neural tubes defects. Increased
Which is the only neural tube defect that has a normal AFP? Spina bifida occulta
What is an important confirmatory test for NT defects? Increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in amniotic fluid
List of Neural tube defects: 1. Spina bifida occulta 2. Meningocele 3. Meningomyelocele 4. Myeloschisis 5. Anencephaly
What is the pathogenesis of Spina bifida occulta? Failure of caudal neuropore to close, but no herniation
At point in vertebral parts is Spina bifida occulta most common seen? Lower vertebral levels
What are clinical associations of Spina bifida occulta? 1. Turf of hair or, 2. Skin dimple at level of bony defect
What is the common association of Meningocele? Spina bifida cystica
What is Meningocele? Meninges (no neural tissue) herniate through bony defect
Meninges herniate through bony defect with elevated AFP and AChE, but no neural tissue. Dx? Meningocele
What is the main difference between a Meningocele and a Meningomyelocele? Meningomyelocele has a herniation in which both, meninges and neural tissue protrude.
What is a common example of a meningomyelocele? Cauda equina
What is another name for Myeloschisis? Rachischisis
Exposed unfused neural tissue without skin/meningeal covering. Dx? Myeloschisis
What is myeloschisis? Exposed unfused neural tissue without any skin or meningeal covering.
What does the failure of rostral neuropore to close in Anencephaly lead to? No forebrain, and open calvarium
Which neural tube defect is seen with open calvarium? Anencephaly
What is the most significant clinical finding in anencephaly? Polyhydramnios
Why is polyhydramnios seen with Anencephaly? No swallowing center in brain
What does the lack of a swallowing center in the brain is associated with? Polyhydramnios seen in Anencephaly
What is Holoprosencephaly? Failure of left and right hemispheres to separate
Failure during which weeks of gestation lead most commonly to development of Holoprosencephaly? Weeks 5-6
What are common mutations associated with Holoprosencephaly? Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway
Which signaling pathway is often seen with mutations in a patient with Holoprosencephaly? Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway
What is the feature physical finding of severe Holoprosencephaly? Cyclopia
What are common pathologies seen with increase incidence of Holoprosencephaly? Trisomy 13 and Fetal alcohol syndrome
What is a common MRI finding of Holoprosencephaly? Monoventricle and fusion of basal ganglia
What part of the brain is seen fused on MRI in a patient with Holoprosencephaly? Basal ganglia
Which rare but severe cranial structural pathology or abnormality is seen at higher risk in Patau patients? Holoprosencephaly
What are 3 common (USMLE) posterior fossa malformations? 1. Chiari I malformation 2. Chiari II malformation 3. Dandy-Walker syndrmeo
Ectopia of cerebellar tonsils. Dx? Chiari I malformation
What are the adult symptoms of Chiari I malformation? Headaches and cerebellar symptoms
What is an important association of Chiari I malformations? Spinal cavitiations
What are cerebellar symptoms? 1. Asynergia 2. Dysmetria 3. Adiadochokinesia 4. Intention tremor 5. Ataxic gait 6. Tendency toward falling 7. Hypotonia 8. Ataxic dysarthria 9. Nystagmus
What is a common syndrome of spinal caviatons? Syringomyelia
A person with diagnosed Syringomyelia, is often seen also with which Posterior fossa malformation? Chiari I malformation
Herniation of low-lying cerebellar vermis and tonsils through foramen magnum with aqueductal stenosis, leading to development of hydrocephalus. Dx? Chiari II malformation
Which cerebellar structures are herniated through the foramen magnum in Chiari II malformation? Vermis and tonsils
Which is the main clinical feature or symptoms of Chiari II malformation? Hydrocephalus
What causes the hydrocephalus seen in Chiari II malformation? Cerebellar vermis and tonsils herniation through the foramen magnum with aqueductal stenosis
What is the most common associated pathology with Chiari II malformation? Lumbosacral meningomyelocele
What posterior fossa malformation is seen with Lumbosacral meningomyelocele? Chiari II malformation
What are the symptoms seen with Lumbosacral meningomyelocele? Paralysis/sensory loss at and below the level of the lesion
The Chiari malformations, I and II, are ____________ ____________ malformations. Posterior fossa
What is the pathogenesis of Dandy-Walker syndrome? Agenesis of cerebellar vermis leads to cystic enlargement of the 4th ventricle that fills the enlarged posterior fossa.
What are the common associated conditions with Dandy-Walker syndrome? 1. Non-communicating hydrocephalus and, 2. Spina bifida
Which brain structure is affected by Chiari II, II, and Dandy-Walker syndrome, all part of the posterior fossa? Cerebellum
Which posterior fossa malformation is seen with a cystic enlargement of the 4th ventricle? Dandy-Walker syndrome
What syndrome/pathology is due to the agenesis of cerebellar vermis? Dandy-Walker syndrome
Large 4th ventricle is seen with: Dandy-Walker syndrome
Cystic cavity within central canal of spinal cord. Dx? Syringomyelia
What is the term used for the cystic cavity of the spinal cord, seen in Syringomyelia? Syrinx
What is "syrinx"? Cystic cavity in central canal of the spinal cord
What are the first structures to be damage in Syringomyelia? Fibers crossing in anterior white commissure
The fibers first affected in Syringomyelia, are part of which tract? Spinothalamic tract
What is the commonly used term to describe the sensory loss in Syringomyelia? "cape-like"
What are the manifestations of Syringomyelia? 1. "Cape-like", bilateral symmetrical loss of pain and temperature sensation in upper extremities
Which sensation is preserved in Syringomyelia upper body? Fine touch
What are associated malformations of Syringomyelia? Chiari malformations
At what level is the most common location for Syringomyelia? C8-T1
Which branchial arches make up the anterior 2/3 of the tongue? 1st and 2nd branchial arches
Sensation of the anterior 2/3 of tongue is via which cranial nerve? CN V3
Which cranial nerve provides taste to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue? CN VII
Is sensation or taste affected in the anterior 2/3 of tongue if CN VII is severed? Taste
Which two branchial arches give rise the posterior 1/3 of tongue? 3rd and 4th branchial arches
Which nerve provides most of the sensation and taste to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue? CN IX
The extreme posterior of the tongue is innervated by which cranial nerve? CN X
Cranial nerve 9 damage will affect what and which part of the tongue? Taste and sensation of most of the posterior 1/3 of tongue
Cranial nerves that give taste to the tongue CN VII, IX, and X (solitary nucleus).
Which cranial nerves are involved in pain sensation to the tongue? CN V3, IX, and X
Motor innervation of the tongue is done via which cranial nerves? CN X and CN XII
CN 12 is involved in sensation or motor innervation of the tongue? Motor
Which muscles are motor innervated by the CN XII? 1. Hyoglossus 2. Genioglossus 3. Styloglossus
Which muscle, associated to tongue physiology, is innervated by CN X? Palatoglossus
What is the function of the Hyoglossus ? Retracts and depresses tongue
Which muscle of the tongue protrudes tongue? Genioglossus
What is the function of tongue muscle, Styloglossus? Draws sides of tongue upward to create a through for swallowing
Which muscle damage may be represented by the tongue's inability to create a "passage" for swallowing? Styloglossus
What is the function of the Palatoglossus during swallowing? Elevates posterior tongue during swallowing
Which tongue associated muscle is known to elevate the posterior part of the tongue during swallowing? Styloglossus
Name or term for the signal-transmitting cells of the nervous system. Neurons
What does it mean that Neurons are permanent cells? Do not divide in adulthood
What are the neurons? Signal-relaying cells of the nervous system with dendrites, cell bodies, and axons.
Which part of the neuron is designed as the to receive input? Dendrites
Which part of the neuron is in charge to sent output? Axons
What is the function of the dendrites in neurons? Receive input
What is the role for the Axons of neurons? Send output
Which organelle is not present in the axon of a neuron? RER
Which the common stain used for neurons? Nissl staining
What organelle of a cell (neuron) is stained by Nissl stingin? RER
Which part of the neuron would not be depicted (stained) with Nissl staining? Axon because it lacks RER
What is Wallerian degeneration? Degeneration of axon distal to site of injury and axonal retraction proximally.
What is the process that follows injury to the axon? Wallerian degeneration
Which, PNS or CNS, has better potential for Wallerian degeneration? PNS
What is the role of Macrophages of the Nervous system following injury to an axon? Remove debris and myelin
Most common glial cell type in the CNS Astrocytes
What is the role or function of Astrocytes? Physical support, repair, extracellular K+ buffer, removal of excess neurotransmitter, component of BBB, glycogen fuel reserve buffer
What process is seen in Astrocytes after neural injury? Reactive gliosis
The term "Reactive gliosis" would indicate involvement of which Nervous system cell? Astrocytes
Astrocytes are derived from _____________. Neuroectoderm
What is the Astrocyte marker? GFAP
GFAP is a marker of which type of nervous system cells? Astrocytes
True or False. Are astrocytes part of the BBB? True
In which two buffer systems are astrocytes involved? 1. Extracellular K+ buffer 2. Glycogen fuel reserve buffer
Phagocytic scavenger cells of CNS. Microglia
What are the origin cells that derived into Microglia? Mesodermal, mononuclear origin
When is Microglia activated? In response to tissue damage
What occurs to Microglia in HIV patients? FUses tos form multinucleated giant cells in CNS
Which type of patients are often seen with multinucleated giant cells in CNS made up of microglia? HIV-infected
What is a common finding in an HIV-infected patient, in association to microglia? Multinucleated giant cell in CNS made up of fused microglia
Glial cells with ciliated simple columnar form atha line the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. Ependymal cells
Which structures are known to be lined by Ependymal cells? 1. Ventricles of the brain 2. Central canal of Spinal cord
A sample of the central canal of the spinal cord, will likely show what type of cells lining it? Ependymal cells
An Ependymal cell apical surface is covered with ______________. Cilia
What is the function of cilia in the apical surface aon an ependymal cell? Circulation of CSF
What action would be halted in case of dysfunctional cilia in apical surface of ependymal cells? Circulation of CSF
Which part of an ependymal cell aids in CSF absorption? Microvilli
What covers the apical surface of the ependymal cells? Cilia and microvilli
What is the main function of Myelin? Increase conduction velocity of signal transmitted down axons
Which part of the axon is known to have high concentrations of Na+ channels? Nodes of Ranvier
Where does myelin produces the fastest signal conduction velocity in the axon? Nodes of Ranvier
What cells produce myelin in the CNS? Oligodendrocytes
Which cells produce myelin in the PNS? Schwann cells
A person with no Schwann cells will produce no myelin in the __________. PNS
Wraps and insulates axons; Increase space constant and increase conduction velocity? Myelin
Axon insulator? Myelin
How many PNS axons are stimulated by one Schwann cell? 1 axon
What NS cells are affected of injured in Guillain-Barre syndrome? Schwann cells
Schwann cells are derived from which neural tissue? Neural crest
Which cells are derived from Neuroectoderm, Schwann cells or Oligodendrocytes? Oligodendrocytes
Which condition are known to affect or damage Oligodendrocytes? 1. Multiple sclerosis 2. Progressive leukoencephalopathy (PML), 3. Leukodystrophies
What is the common histological description of Oligodendrocytes? "Fried egg" appearance
Each _________________ can myelinate many axons. Oligodendrocytes
Approximately how many CNS axons are myelinated by 1 Oligodendrocyte? ~30
What is the predominant type of glial cell in white matter? Oligodendrocytes
Sensory neuron fiber of Free nerve endings: 1. C-slow, unmyelinated fibers 2. AS-fast, myelinated fibers
Location of Free nerve endings All skin, epidermis, and some viscera
Which sensory receptors are located in all the skin, epidermis, and some of the viscera? Free nerve endings
Which fiber of free nerve endings is the slow type? C-type, which is unmyelinated
Myelinated fibers of free nerve endings: AS fiber type
Which type of fiber of free nerve endings is the fast type? AS-type, which are myelinated
What is the difference between AS fibers and C-fibers of free nerve endings? C-fibers are unmyelinated and AS fibers are myelinated
What is sensed by Free nerve endings? Pain and temperature
Pain and temperature are sense by which sensory receptors? Free nerve endings
Description of sensory neuron fiber of Meissner corpuscles? Large, myelinated fibers; adapt quickly
What is the location for Meissner corpuscles? Glabrous (hairless) skin
Which sensory receptors are located in hairless skin? Meissner corpuscles
What does the word "Glabrous" mean? Hairless
Senses dynamic, fine/light touch, and position sense. Meissner corpuscles
Large, myelinated fibers that are quickly adapted. This describes which sensory receptors? Meissner corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles
Which structures (location) have Pacinian corpuscles? Deep skin layers, ligaments, and joints
What is sensed by the Pacinian corpuscles? Vibration and Pressure
Which sensory receptors are known to sense Vibration and Pressure? Pacinian corpuscles
What type of sensory receptors are likely to be found in the ligaments? Pacinian corpuscles
Which are the two sensory receptors that are found in the joints? Pacinian corpuscles and Ruffini corpuscles
What is the difference between Pacinian/Meissner corpuscles and Merkel discs, sensory neuron type? Both are large and myelinated fibers, but Merkel discs adapt slowly.
A large, myelinated fiber that adapts slowly. Which the sensory receptor type? Merkel discs
Where are Merkel discs located? Fingertips, and superficial skin
What is sensed by the Merkel discs? Pressure, Deep static touch (shapes, edges) Position sense
What type of figures are sensed by deep static touch sensation of the Merkel discs? Shapes and edges
The ability to distinguish the edges and shape of a structure by touch is known as ___________________. Deep static touch
Which sensory receptors provide deep static touch sensation? Merkel discs
What are the fibers that make up the Ruffini corpuscles? Dendritic endings with capsule
Do Ruffini corpuscles adapt slowly or rapidly? Slowly
Where are Ruffini corpuscles found in the body? Fingertips and joints
Which sensory receptors are found in the fingertips? Merkel discs and Ruffini corpuscles
What is sensed by the Ruffini corpuscles? Pressure, slippage of objects along surface of skin, and joint angle change.
Rolling a pencil along the distal surface of the fingers, is sensed by the ___________ _____________. Ruffini corpuscles
Dendritic endings with capsule. Sensory neuron fiber of the Ruffini corpuscles
What 3 main structures surround the nerve fibers? Endoneurium, Perineurium, and Epineurium
Which surrounding structure of the nerve is the outermost? Epineurium
Description of the Epineurium? Dense connective tissue that surrounds entire nerve
What is (are) found in the Epineurium? Fascicles and blood vessels
Invest single nerve fiber layers Endoneurium
In which surrounding structure of the nerve are inflammatory infiltrates found in Guillain-Barre syndrome? Endoneurium
Which surrounding structure of the nerve is affected in Guillain-Barre syndrome? Endoneurium
Which surrounding nerve structure is the Blood-nerve permeability barrier? Perineurium
Surrounds a fascicle of nerve fibers. Perineurium
Which part of the nerve must be rejoined in microsurgery for limb reattachment? Perineurium
Accident that requires reattachment of an appendage, must rejoin which nerve surrounding structure? Perineurium
What is Chromatolysis? Reaction of neuronal cell body to axonal injury
Reaction of neuronal cell body to axonal injury. Chromatolysis
What changes depict chromatolysis? Increase protein synthesis in effort to repair the damaged axon
What are the main characteristics or features of Chromatolysis? 1. Round cellular swelling 2. Displacement of nucleus to the periphery 3. Dispersion of Nissl substance throughout cytoplasm
In a neuron that has a dispersed Nissl substance in the cytoplasm can be indicative of what process undergoing? Chromatolysis
Chromatolysis is concurrent with: Wallerian degeneration
Which axon/neuron repair processes occur at the same time? Chromatolysis and Wallerian degeneration
Where is Acetylcholine synthesized? Basal nucleus of Meynert
What is produced in the Basal nucleus of Meynert? Acetylcholine
Which two conditions are seen with DECREASED levels of Acetylcholine? Alzheimer disease and Huntington disease
Which neurological conditions is associated with elevated levels of Acetylcholine? Parkinson disease
Acetylcholine levels in Parkinson disease are ____________________. Elevated
Where is Dopamine synthesized? - Ventral tegmentum, - SNc
Which neurotransmitter is synthesized in the Ventral tegmentum and SNc? Dopamine
Which psychiatric and neurodegenerative conditions have increased/elevated Dopamine levels? Schizophrenia and Huntington disease
A person with depression has ________________ levels of Dopamine. Decreased
Which neurodegenerative condition is seen with decreased dopamine? Parkinson disease
Which neurotransmitter is elevated in Schizophrenia and Huntington's disease, and decreased in depression and Parkinson's? Dopamine
What neurotransmitter is made by the Nucleus accumbens? GABA
GABA is decreased in which neurological conditions? Anxiety and Huntington disease
Level of GABA in anxious patient, most likely is _______________. Decreased
Which neurotransmitters are decreased in Huntington disease? Acetylcholine and GABA
Decreased in anxiety and Huntington disease. GABA
Which structure synthesizes Norepinephrine? Locus ceruleus
A injury or defect in the Locus ceruleus will cause a decrease production of which common neurotransmitter? Norepinephrine
Which condition is known to produce elevated levels of Norepinephrine (NE)? Anxiety
A person with diagnosed depression has low levels of the following neurotransmitters: Dopamine, Norepinephrine, and Serotonin
Decreased dopamine, NE, and Serotonin. What is a possible Dx? Depression
Raphe nucleus synthesizses ___________________. Serotonin
Where is Serotonin synthesized? Raphe nucleus
Levels of Serotonin in Parkinson's disease are ________________. Decreased
Which conditions lead to low levels of Serotonin? Anxiety, Depression, and Parkinson disease
Elevated Acetylcholine, and decreased serotonin and NE. Dx? Parkinson disease
Which neurotransmitter are either low or high in Anxiety? Decreased GABA and Serotonin, but elevated Norepinephrine
An anxious person very likely will show high levels of which neurotransmitter? Norepinephrine
Which is the only neurotransmitter that is changed in Alzheimer disease? Acetylcholine
Three membranes that surround and protect the brain and spinal cord? Meninges
What are the meninges? Three membranes that surround and protect the brain and spinal cord.
What are the three membranes that make up the meninges? Dura mater, Arachnoid mater, and Pia mater
What is the dura mater? Thick outer layer closest to skull
What is the Arachnoid mater? Middle layer (meninge) of the skull, that contains web-like connections
What is the Pia mater? The thin, fibrous inner layer that firmly adheres to brain and spinal cord.
Which meninges are derived from the Neural crest? Arachnoid mater and Pia mater
Which meninge is derived from the Mesoderm? Dura mater
Which meninge is the one in direct contact with the brain and spinal cord? Pia mater
Where is the subarachnoid space located? Between arachnoid and pia mater
What structure is between the pia mater and the arachnoid mater? Subarachnoid space
Where does the CSF flow into, in respect with the meninges? Subarachnoid space
What is the Epidural space? A potential space between the dura mater and skull
What is found or contains in the Epidural space? Fat and blood vessels
Potential space between the dura mater and skull Epidural space
What is the function of the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)? Prevents circulating blood substances from reaching the CSF/CNS.
What known structure blocks the passage of blood substances, such as drugs and bacteria, to readily reach the CSF and CNS? Blood brain barrier
What composes the BBB? 1. Tight junctions between non-fenestrated capillary endothelial cells 2. Basement membrane 3. Astrocyte foot processes
Which nervous system cells are known to be part of the BBB composition? Astrocytes foot processes
What cell foot processes' are part of the Blood brain barrier? Astrocytes
Which substances cross slowly the BBB? Glucose and amino acids
How do glucose and amino acids cross across the BBB? Carrier-mediated transport mechanisms
Which substances are known to cross the BBB rapidly? Nonpolar/Lipid-soluble substances
Why is a lipid soluble drug more likely to cause CNS toxicity? It lipid solubility allow for rapid cross of the Blood brain barrier
Which areas of the brain are not protected by the BBB? 1. Area postrema 2. OVLT (organum vasculosum lamina terminalis)
What is the result of destruction of the endothelial cell tight junctions? Vasogenic edema
Which part of the BBB must be destroyed or affected in order to cause vasogenic edema? Endothelial cell tight junctions
Besides the BBB, which are other notable barriers found in the human body? 1. Blood-testis barrier 2. Maternal-fetal blood barrier of placenta
List of functions and roles of the Hypothalamus: 1. Maintains homeostasis by regulating thirst and water balance 2. Controlling Adenohypophysis and Neurohypophysis release of hormones produced in the hypothalamus 3. Regulating hunger, autonomic nervous system, temperature, and sexual urges
One of this structure's main functions is to maintain homeostasis by regulating thirst and water balance? Hypothalamus
Areas not protected by the blood-brain barrier are commonly known as ____________________. Inputs
What are the inputs? Areas not protected by the BBB
What is sensed by the OVLT? Change in osmolarity
Where is the area postrema found? Medulla
Which structure is know to respond well to antiemetics? Area postrema
What features are regulated by the Hypothalamus? Hunger, Autonomic NS, Temperature, and Sexual urges
The pituitary secretion of hormones by both anterior and posterior, are controlled by the ____________. Hypothalamus
List of nucleus found in the Hypothalamus: 1. Lateral nucleus 2. Ventromedial nucleus 3. Anterior nucleus 4. Posterior nucleus 5. Suprachiasmatic nucleus 6. Supraoptic and Paraventricular nuclei 7. Preoptic nucleus
What is regulated by the Lateral nucleus of the Hypothalamus? Hunger
Which hypothalamic nucleus regulates hunger? Lateral nucleus of the hypothalamus
What occurs in damaging or injuring the Lateral nucleus of the hypothalamus? Anorexia, failure to thrive (infants)
Its destruction makes you lean or thin. Lateral nucleus of the hypothalamus
What stimulates the hypothalamic lateral nucleus? Ghrelin
Which substance is known to inhibit the hypothalamic lateral nucleus? Leptin
Leptin in the Hypothalamic Lateral nucleus ----> Inhibits the hypothalamic lateral nucleus
What is regulated by the Hypothalamic Ventromedial nucleus? Satiety
Which nucleus of the hypothalamus is known to control or regulate satiety? Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus
What is a common cause of the destruction of the Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus? Craniopharyngioma
Leptin in the Hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus ---> Stimulates
What is the result of destruction of the Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus? Hyperphagia
Which hypothalamic nucleus damage can make you become fat? Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus
What is the role or function of the Hypothalamic anterior nucleus? Cooling
Hypothalamic anterior nucleus is , parasympathetic or sympathetic? Parasympathetic
What is the function of the the Posterior nucleus of the hypothalamus? Heating
Which nervous system is associated with posterior nucleus of the hypothalamus? Sympathetic
Which hypothalamic nucleus is known to control the Circadian rhythm? Suprachiasmatic nucleus
What is a controlled by the Suprachiasmatic nucleus of the Hypothalamus? Circadian rhythm
What is hormones are produced by the Supraoptic and Paraventricular nuclei? ADH and oxytocin
Synthesize ADH and oxytocin . Supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei
Which proteins carry ADH and oxytocin? Neurophysins
ADH and oxytocin are carried by neurophysins down --> Axons to posterior pituitary
Where are ADH and oxytocin stored and released? Posterior pituitary
What is controlled by the Preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus? Thermoregulation and sexual behavior
What hormone is released by the Preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus? GnRH
Failure of GnRH-producing neurons to migrate from olfactory pit lead to: Kallmann syndrome
Thermoregulation and sexual behavior is controlled or regulated by which hypothalamic nucleus? Preoptic nucleus
Which hypothalamic nucleus releases GnRH? Preoptic nucleus
Which hypothalamic nucleus may be damaged or abnormal in Kallmann syndrome? Preoptic nucleus
Created by: rakomi
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