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BJU Space/Earth 18

BJU - Space and Earth Science - Chapter 18 (4th edition)

The direct transfer of thermal energy through a substance or from one object in physical contact with another. conduction
The indirect transfer of thermal energy from one place to another by the movement of currents of cooler, more dense matter into regions of warmer, less dense matter. Convection occurs in liquids and gases because their particles are mobile. convection
The outermost zone of the earth's atmosphere that extends into space itself. exosphere
the warming of the lower atmosphere by infrared radiation that is radiated by the earth's surface after it absorbs visible radiation from the sun. greenhouse effect
Any of the gases present in the atmosphere that enhance the absorption of infrared radiation by the atmosphere Water vapor, carbon dioxide, and several other naturally occurring gases are the predominant greenhouse gases. greenhouse gas
One of the zones of the atmosphere defined by composition. It is the collection of gas layers above the homosphere consisting of separate layers of oxygen, helium, and hydrogen. heterosphere
One of the zones of the atmosphere when it is subdivided by composition; the layer of the atmosphere nearest the earth's surface consisting of a homogeneous mixture of gases. homosphere
That portion of Earth's upper atmosphere where solar ultraviolet radiation breaks down the gas molecules into individual atoms and ions. It reflects shortwave radio signals. The zone is from about 70-80 km to 500 km or more above the Earth's surface. ionosphere
A high-speed meandering wind current, usually flowing from west to east at altitudes of 15-25 km. Its speed often exceeds 400 km/h. jet stream
The rate at which temperature changes with altitude in the atmosphere. The average tropospheric lapse rate is -6.4 degrees Celsius/km. lapse rate
The magnetic field that encircles the earth and traps high-energy ions from the sun's solar wind. It protects living things from damage by the sun's particle radiation. magnetosphere
One of the layers of the atmosphere defined by temperature profile. The zone of the earth's atmosphere between about 50-80 km above sea level, characterized by decreasing temperature with increasing altitude. mesosphere
A layer of concentrated ozone (O3) located 20-50 km above the earth's surface that shields the earth from the harmful forms of ultraviolet light. ozone layer
A region of the earth's atmosphere defined by the temperature profile located between the troposphere and the mesosphere and between 12-50 km above the earth's surface. The temperature increases with altitude through this region. stratosphere
The highest and largest of the 4 atmospheric layers defined by temperature profile, ranging from about 80 km to 500 km above sea level. It is characterized by the highest daily temperatures in the atmosphere. thermosphere
The lowest of the 4 layers of the earth's atmosphere defined by the temperature profile. It is the location of all weather that affects the earth's surface. troposphere
The rate of the flow of radiant energy from the sun through space to reach Earth. solar constant
The emission of electromagnetic waves, as with sunlight or heat lamps; one of several methods of heat transfer involving infrared waves; also refers to the rays and particles emitted by the nuclei of radioactive materials radiation
The envelope of gases that surrounds any astronomical body; in particular, refers to the mass of gases that surrounds the earth atmosphere
Created by: marchscience
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