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Chp 49, 50, 51

QuestionAnswer
Adenohypophysis anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
Adrenal cortex outer portion of the adrenal glands -manufactures and secretes glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and small amounts of sex hormones
Adrenal glands glands located above the kidneys -outer portion is the cortex, and the inner portion is the medulla
Adrenal medulla inner portion of the adrenal glands -secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine, two hormones released in response to stress or threat to life
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) substance secreted by the pituitary that stimulates the adrenal glands to secrete corticosteroid hormones
Corticosteroids chemicals secreted by the adrenal cortex
Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) causes the anterior pituitary gland to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Estrogen hormone produced by the ovaries
Feedback loop mechanism that turns hormone production off and on to keep concentrations of hormones within a stable range at all times. Feedback can either be positive or negative. Hormones are secreted in response to negative feedback, vice versa with positive
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) hormone that stimulates development of ovum in the ovaries and sperm in the testes
Glucagon hormone that increases blood sugar levels by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen into glucose in the liver
Glycogenolysis process in which glycogen is broken down into glucose in the liver
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone triggers sexual development at the onset of puberty and continues to cause the anterior pituitary gland to secrete luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) causes the release of somatotropin (growth hormone (GH)) from the anterior pituitary gland
Hormones chemicals that accelerate or slow physiological processes
Hypophysis pituitary gland
Hypothalamic dopamine inhibits the release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland
Hypothalamus portion of the brain between the cerebrum and the brain stem that stimulates and inhibits the pituitary gland
Insulin pancreatic hormone necessary for the metabolism of glucose
Islets of Langerhans hormone-secreting cells of the pancreas that release insulin and glucagon
Luteinizing hormone (LH) hormone that initiates ovulation, and in both sexes, secretion of sex hormones
Melatonin hormone that aids in regulating sleep cycles and mood and is believed to play a role in hypothalamic-pituitary interaction
Neurohormones stimulate and inhibit secretions from the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland -also known as releasing hormones
Neurohypophysis posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
Ovaries female endocrine glands important in the development of secondary sex characteristics, the manufacture of hormones, and the development of ova
Pancreas gland with both exocrine and endocrine functions -exocrine portion secretes digestive enzymes that the common bile duct carries to the small intestine, while the endocrine cells of the pancreas release insulin and glucagon
Pancreatic polypeptide hormone released from gamma islet cells that control exocrine secretions from the pancreas
Parathormone hormone that regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosphorous
Parathyroid glands four small bean-shaped bodies embedded in the lateral lobes of the thyroid that secrete parathormone
Pars intermedia intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland
Pineal gland gland attached to the thalamus that secretes melatonin, which aids in regulating sleep cycles and mood
Progesterone hormone produced by the ovaries
Prolactin hormone that promotes production and secretion of milk after childbirth
Radioimmunoassay study that determines the concentration of a radioactive substance in blood plasma
Radionuclide atom with an unstable nucleus that emits electromagnetic radiation
Somatostatin hormone secreted by delta islet cells that helps to maintain a relatively constant level fo blood glucose by inhibiting the release of insulin and glucagons
Somatotropin hormone that stimulates bone and muscle growth and promotes protein synthesis and fat mobilization
Testes male sex glands, important in the development of secondary sex characteristics, the manufacture of hormones, and the development of sperm
Testosterone hormone produced by the testes for the development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics
Tetraiodothyronine hormone synthesized by the thyroid gland that regulates the body's metabolic rate -also known as T4
Thymopoietin hormone that aids in the proliferation and differentiation of T lymphocytes
Thymosin hormone that aids in developing T lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell involved in immunity
Thymus gland structure in the upper part of the chest that secretes thymosin, which programs T lymphocytes to become regulatory or effector T cells
Thyroid gland structure located in the lower neck that concentrate iodine from food and uses it to synthesize tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine or T4) and triiodothyronine T3
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) pituitary hormone that stimulates the production and secretion of thyroid hormones
Triiodothyronine hormone synthesized by the thyroid gland that regulates the body's metabolic rate -also called T3
Acromegaly condition in which growth hormone is over secreted after the epiphyses of the long bones have healed
Addisonian crisis life-threatening endocrine emergency when corticosteroid therapy is abruptly discontinued
Adrenalectomy surgical removal of the adrenal gland(s), usually to remove a cancerous tumor
Adrenal insufficiency decreased adrenal cortical function
Carpopedal spasm involuntary contraction of hand muscles
Cushingoid syndrome physical changes that accompany excess endogenous production of steroid hormones or long-term corticosteroid therapy
Cushing's syndrome endocrine disorder that results from excessive secretion of hormones by the adrenal cortex
Diabetes insipidus endocrine disorder that develops when antidiuretic hormone from the posterior pituitary gland is insufficient
Goiter enlarged thyroid gland
Hyperaldosteronism excessive secretion of aldosterone leading to extreme electrolyte imbalances
Hyperparathyroidism disorder of the parathyroid gland that affects calcium and phosphorous levels
Hyperplasia increase in the number of cells
Hypertrophy increase in size
Hypoparathyroidism deficiency of parathormone that results in hypocalcemia
Hypophysectomy surgical removal of the pituitary gland
Hyperthyroidism disorder associated with hyper secretion of thyroid hormones in which metabolic rate increases
Hypothyroidism disorder that occurs when the thyroid gland fails to secrete adequate thyroid hormones
Myxedema hypothyroidism in an adult
Pheochromocytoma
Simmonds' disease
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion
Tetany
Thyroidectomy
Thyroiditis
Thyrotoxic crisis
Bariatric surgery
Diabetes mellitus
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Diabetic nephropathy
Diabetic retinopathy
Fasting blood glucose
Gangrene
Glucometer
Glycemic index
Glycosuria
Glycosylated hemoglobin
Hyperglycemia
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome
Hypoglycemia
Insulin independence
Insulin resistance
Ketoacidosis
Ketonemia
Ketones
Ketonuria
Kussmaul's respirations
Lipoatrophy
Lipohypertrophy
Lipolysis
Metabolic syndrome
Microalbuminuria
Oral glucose tolerance test
Polydipsia
Polyphagia
Polyuria
Postprandial glucose
Prediabetes
Random blood glucose
Renal threshold
Rule of 15
Tight glucose control
Created by: ahoyyitbeaddi