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Ch 3 and 5

Chaffey College Medical Terminology Course

Atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems and organisms Human Body: Levels of Organization (in order)
Atom Smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
Electron Single negative charge
Protons Single positive charge
Neutron Electronically neutral (no charge)
Atomic Number Number of protons
Atomic Mass Number of protons + neutrons
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen Factors that make up an atom?
Sugars, proteins and water Factors that make up molecules?
Mitochondrion, nucleus, ribosome Factors that make up organelles?
Epithelial cell, nerve cell and muscle cell Factors that make up cells?
Epithelial tissue, nervous tissue and connective tissue Factors that make up tissue?
Lungs, brain, stomach and kidney Factors that make up organs?
Respiratory system, nervous system, digestive system and circulatory system Factors that make up organ systems?
Human Factors that make up an organism?
Element A substance that can not be broken down into any other substance by chemical reactions
Oxygen, carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen What four atoms make up 96% of the human body?
Elements Substance which contain two or more different elements in a fixed ratio
Molecule A chemical combination of two or more atoms that for a specific compound
H20 (water) What molecule makes up 55% to 65% of body weight?
Cells The basic building blocks that make up the structure of the body, which come in several types and each type is specialized to perform specific functions
Cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus What are the common components of cells
Cell Membrane Outer covering of the cell, which allow some substance to pass into and out of the cell but prevents other substances <--- (this is known as selectivity)
Cytoplasm Jelly-like substance between the cell membrane and the nuclear membrane that provides storage and work areas for the cell
Organelles The storage and work elements for the cell are also known as
ER, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes and centrioles Organelles include
Nucleus Responsible for the cell's metabolism, growth and reproduction also containing chromosomes that carry the genes that determine hereditary characteristics
Genes What determines physical traits like hair, skin, eye color, body structure and metabolic activity?
Genome The complete set of genes and chromosomes tucked in each body cell
Bone cell A small, elongated cell with small tendrils coming off the ends and sides
Nerve cell in spinal cord A cell within an irregular, spiky head and a long, thin tail
Ovum A round cell with a shell around the center
Fat cell A round cell with a nodule on one side
Skeletal muscle cell An elongated cell with horizontal striations and small, elongated shapes inside
Cell lining the intestinal tract This cell consists of three vertical parts with tendrils on the ends and one small, roundish part between two of the vertical parts
Blood cells Small round cells
Smooth muscle cells Long, thin cells
Nerve cell in brain This cell has a small, round part underneath a group of thin, spidery tendrils and a long tail comes from the bottom of the small, round part
Stem cells Precursors of all body cells
1. divide and renew 2. unspecialized 3. rise to specialize Three characteristics of stem cells
Embryos, adult tissues and umbilical cord blood Where can stem cells be found?
Connective tissue The most widespread and abundant body tissue that supports organs, sheaths muscles and connects muscles to bones and bones to joints
Muscle tissue Important for movement
Skeletal (voluntary) muscle Striated and effects skeletal movement such a locomotion
Smooth (involuntary) muscle Found within the walls of organs and other structures
Cardiac muscle Specialized striated tissue found only in the heart
Nerve tissue Consists of nerve cells (neurons) and supporting cells (neuroglia)
Nerve tissue What tissue contains properties of excitability and conductivity as well as controls and coordinates the activities of the body
Organ Multiple tissues that serve a common function
Organs System A group of different organs that function together for a common purpose
Organism Made up of many systems working together to support the body as a whole
Integumentary system Protective membrane, temperature regulator and sensory receptor: major functions of what system?
Skeletal system Framework and movement- shape, support, protection and storage place for minerals and movement is made possible through joins: major functions of what system?
Nervous system Communication and control- transmits pulses, responds to change, is responsible for communication and exercises control over all part of the body: major functions of what system?
Muscular system Framework and movement- produce movement, maintain posture and produce heat: major functions of what system?
Endocrine system Communication and control- the glands produce hormones, chemical messengers which provide for communication and control over carious parts of the body: major functions of what system?
Cardiovascular system Transportation and immunity- transports oxygen and carbon dioxide and delivers nutrients and hormones as well as removes waste products: major functions of what system?
Blood and lymphathic system Transportation and immunity- transports oxygen and carbon dioxide, chemical substances and cells that act to protect the body from foreign substances: major functions of what system?
Respiratory system Distribution and elimination- furnishes oxygen for use by individual tissue cells and remove their gaseous waste product, carbon dioxide: major functions of what system?
Urinary system Distribution and elimination- produce, transports and eliminates urine and help maintain electrolyte, water and acid-based balance of the body: major functions of what system?
Reproductive system Cycle of life- responsible for sexual characteristics of the male and/ or female: major functions of what system?
1. body is erect 2. head is facing forward 3. arms are by side with palms front What are the three assumptions to the anatomical position?
Coronal plane Divides body into anterior and posterior portions
Sagittal plane Divides body into left and right portions
Transverse plane Divides the body into superior and inferior portions
Posterior Back of the head
Anterior Front of the head
Cranial cavity Where is the skull located
Inside the spinal cord Where is the spinal cavity located?
In the upper chest Where is the thoracic cavity located?
The pericardial membranes What is around the edge of the heart?
Pericardial cavity Where is the heart located?
In the lower chest Where is the pericardial cavity located?
The diaphragm What sits below the pericardial cavity?
The hips What is near the pelvic cavity?
The abdominal and the pelvic The abdominopelvic cavity is a combination of what two cavities?
Cavity A hallow space containing body organs
Ventral (Anterior) Cavity What is the cavity on the front side of the body
Dorsal (Posterior) Cavity What is the cavity on the back side of the body
Ventral cavity The hallow part of the torso, extending from the next to the pelvis
1. thoracic cavity- chest area (pericardial cavities- heart and pleural cavities- lungs) 2. abdominal cavity- below diaphragm 3. pelvic cavity- by pelvic bones What are the three subdivisions of the ventral cavity and what does each one surround?
1. cranial cavity- inside the skull 2. spinal cavity- spinal column What are the two subdivision of the dorsal cavity and what does each surround?
Four quadrants The abdomen can be divided into how many regions?
Chest, back, shoulders and abdomen What is included in the trunk of the body?
Therapeutic, diagnostic, curative, replacement, and preventive Five medical uses for drugs what are they?
Therpeautic What drug relieves symptoms?
Diagnostic What drug helps locate a disease process?
Curative What drug kills or removes agents of disease?
Replacement What drug replaces or supplement missing substances?
Preventative What drug prevents or lessens the severity of a disease?
Chemical Name Is the formula that denotes the composition of the drug
Generic Name The drug's official name and is descriptive of its chemical structure
Brand of Trade Name Registered by the US
Adverse reaction A harmful unintended action of a drug
Drug interaction Occurs when one drug increases the action or diminishes the action of another drug
206 How many bones make up the skeleton of the body?
Axial skeleton The principle bones being the skull, spine, ribs and sternum
80 How many bones make up the axial skeleton?
Appendicular skeleton The primary bones being the shoulder girdle, arms, hand, pelvic girdle, legs and feet
126 How many bones make up the appendicular skeleton?
Bones Primary organs of the skeletal system, made up of water and solid matter and provide shape, support and the framework for the body. As well as provide protection for internal organs and serve as storage place for mineral salts, calcium and phosphorus
Cartilage Specialized type of fibrous connective tissue found at the end of bones and forms major portion of the embryonic skeleton and part of the skeleton in adults
Tendons Attach muscle to bones and consists of connective tissue
Ligaments Bands of fibrous connect tissue that connect bones, cartilages and other structures and also serves as places for the attachment of fascia
Osseous tissue What is the solid matter of the bone also known as
osteoblasts When cartilage cells enlarge, breakdown and disappear it is replace by bone-forming cells known as
During the second month of fetal life When do bones begin to develop
Bone matrix Bone cells deposit organize substances in the spaces vacated by cartilage to form what?
Flat bones Protect internal organs, can also provide large areas of attachment for muscles
Brain, heart and pelvic organs What are examples of flat bones?
Long bones Function to support the weight of the body and facilities movement
Includes the femur and relatively long bones in the fingers What are examples of long bones?
Appendicular skeleton Where are long bones primarily located?
Short bones Provides stability and some movement and are about as long as they are wide
Wrist and ankle joints Where are short bones primarily located?
Irregular bones Vary in shape and structure and therefore do not fit into any other category, often have fairly complex shape which helps protect internal organs
Vertebrae and sacrum What are some examples of irregular bones?
Sesamoid bones To protect tendons from stress and wear they are bones that are embedded in tendons
Patella (kneecap) What is an example of a sesamoid bone?
Joining bones together, providing muscle attachment and serving as passageways for blood vessels, ligaments and nerves Three primary roles for bones
Condyle Rounded projection that enters into the formation of a joint, articulation
Crest Ridge on a bone
Fissure Slitlike opening between two bones
Foramen Opening in the bone for blood vessels, ligaments and nerves
Fossa Shallow depression in or on a bone
Head Rounded end of a bone
Meatus Tubelike passage or cancel
Process Enlargement or protrusion of a bone
Sinus Air cavity within certain bones
Spine Pointed, sharp slender process
Sulcus Groove, furrow, depression or fissure
Trochanter Either of the two bony projections below the neck of the femur
Tubercle Small, rounded process (bone marking)
Tuberosity Large, rounded process (bone marking_
Joint An articulation, a place where two or more bones connect
Pain, swelling and stiffness in the affected joint Main symptoms no what the type of arthritis
SAD- Synarthrosis (fibrous), Amphiarthrosis (cartilaginous), Diarthrosis (synovial) Classification of Joints
Flexion Bending a limb
Extension Straightening a flexed limb
Circumduction Moving a body part in a circular motion
Abduction Moving a body part away from the middle
Adduction Moving a body part toward the middle
Protraction Moving a body part forward
Retraction Moving a body part backward
Rotation Moving a body part around a central axis
Dorisflexion Bending a body part backward
Pronation Lying prone (face downward) also turning palm downward
Supination Lying supine (face upward) also turning the palm or foot upward
Eversion Turning outward
Inversion Turning inward
Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral What are the four spinal curves of the vertebral column?
1. Cervical- first 7 2. Thoracic- next 12 3. Lumbar- next 12 4. Sacral- the sacrum and the coccyx Name the four spinal curves in order and how many vertebrae are in each curve
Male: shaped like a funnel forming a narrower outlet Female: shaped like a basin forming a wider outlet The difference between the male and female pelvis
Gynecoid Another name for the female pelvis
Android Another name for the male pelvis
Fracture Classified according to its external appearance the site and the nature of the crack or break in the bone
Closed/ Simple Fracture Bone breaks but skin remains intact
Open/Compound Fracture Bone breaks and protrudes through increase risk of ostemyelitis
Greenstick/ Incomplete Fracture Bone fragment are still partially joined common in children
Oblique Fracture occurs diagonal to the bone's axis
Displaced/Unstable Fracture Broken ends of bones move out of correct anatomical alignment
Comminuted Fracture Bone fragments into many places, common for those with brittle bones
Transverse Fracture Fracture occurs at a right angle to the bone's axis
Nondisplaced/ stable fracture Broken ends of bones remain aligned
Complete Fracture Fracture involves the entire width of the bone
Impacted/ Buckle Fracture The two ends of the bone are forced together
Linear Fracture Fracture occurs parallel to the bone's axis
Avulsion Fracture A fragment of bone is separated from the rest of the bone, may also involve displacement of surrounding tissues
Stress Fracture Caused by small repetitive forces on the bone
Spiral Fracture Fracture spirals around the bone, occurs as the result of twisting force
Depression Fracture Bones faces inward
Compression Fracture Bone is crushed, occurs most commonly in vertebrae
Pathologic Fracture Caused by a disease that weakens the bone such as osteoporosis, bone cancer, and osteogenesis imperfecta
Osteoporosis A disease in which the density and quality of bone are reduced, bones become more porous and fragile and the risk fracture is greatly increased
Arthrography Diagnostic examination of a joint in which air and then a radiopaque contract medium are injected into the joint space and x-rays are taken
Arthroscopy Process of examining internal structures of a joint via an arthroscope
Computed tomography Cross-section scanning of bone and soft tissue
Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan (DXA) Test used to measure bone mass or bone mineral density
Goniometry Measurement of joint movements, especially range of motion and angles via a goniometer
Magnetic resonance imaging Noninvasive imaging that uses radio waves and a magnetic field
Photon Absorptiometry Bone scan that uses a low beam of radiation to measure bone mineral density and bone loss in the lumbar vertebrae
Thermography Process of recording heat patterns of the body's surface
X-ray Examination of bones using an electromagnetic wave of high energy produced by the collision of a beam of electrons with target in a vacuum tube
Bone mineral density test (BMD) Used to measure bone mass or bone mineral density
Created by: irmasanccheez
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