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102.9 & 102.10

Electricity A form of energy that produces light, heat, magnetic and chemical changes.
Electric Current The flow of electrons that moves along a path called a conductor.
Load The technical name for any electrically powered appliance.
Conductor A material that allows electricity to flow through it easily.
Insulator Material that does not allow the flow of electric current.
Amp a Unit of electric strength
Volt A unit of electric pressure.
Ohm A unit of electric resistance.
Watt A measure of how much electrical energy ( power) is being used per second.
Kilowatt Equals 1,000 watts of electrical energy; measurement of how fast energy is used.
Electrons Negatively charged particles that orbit around the nucleus of an atom.
Inverter Special instrument that changes direct current to alternating current.
Rectifier Special instrument that changes alternating current to direct current.
alternating current (AC) Electrons flow first in one direction and then in the other.
direct current (DC) Electrons move at an even rate and flow in one direction.
Source Provides the force to move the electrons in the conducting material.
Battery A source of electrical current with a positive and negative terminal; produces direct current only.
Generator Power source most often used in a salon; produces alternating current; uses mechanical energy to produce a flow of electrons.
Frequency (Hertz) A rating providing the number of cycles per second that a generator alternates the current from the source.
Circuit Flow of electrons along a path called a conductor.
closed path A path of electron flow from the source to operate appliance.
open circuit A broken path of electron flow.
parallel wiring Wiring system with the ability to power several loads all a once or at different times.
series wiring Travels from one load to the next forcing the user to have all loads running at the same time.
Overload The passage of more current than the line can carry.
short circuit Occurs anytime a foreign conductor comes into contact with a wire carrying current to the load ( appliance).
circuit breaker Reusable safety device that breaks the flow of current when an overload occurs.
Fuse A safety device that contains a fine metal wire that allows current to flow through it.
ground fault circuit interrupter Outlet recommended for installation in any area where water and electricity could come into contact.
Resistance The measure of how difficult it is to push electrons through a conductor.
UL rating Underwriter’s Laboratory designation; means the appliance had been certified to operate safely under the conditions the instructions specify.
Electrotherapy The use of a specific electrical current or piece of equipment for corrective and therapeutic benefits on the skin.
Electrode Safe contact point through which current can pass to the client.
galvanic current A direct current (DC) that has a electrochemical effect and is the oldest form of electrotherapy in the salon.
EMS current An alternating current, interrupted to produce a mechanical, non-chemical reaction. Stimulates nerve and muscle tissue.
Microcurrent An alternating current with a mechanical effect, that produce muscle contractions; also known as sinusoidal current.
high-frequency current Alternating current that can be adjusted to different voltages to produces heat; also known as Tesla or the “violet ray.”
light therapy The production of beneficial effects on the body through treatments using light rays or waves.
infrared light Produces heat; over half of sunlight is composed of invisible rays beyond red.
ultraviolet light (UV) The percentage of natural sunlight composed of invisible rays beyond violet.
Anode A positively charged electrode; usually red in color or displays a large “P” or a positive sign (+).
Cathode A negatively charged electrode; usually black in color or displays a large “N” or a negative sign (-).
Phoresis The process of forcing an acid (+) of alkali (-) into the skin by applying current to the chemical; also referred to as bleaching the skin.
Anaphoresis Negative pole of galvanic current that produces an alkaline reaction.
Cataphoresis Positive pole of galvanic current that produces an acidic reaction.
Iontophoresis A process that uses galvanic current to infuse (acidic) water-based products for deeper penetration into the skin.
Desincrustation A treatment in which sebum is broken down or blackheads are liquefied, as in deep-pore cleansing.
indirect method Most frequently used application of EMS. Salon professional usually wears a wristband with a moistened electrode.
direct method Places both electrodes on the client’s skin, making certain the electrodes never touch.
general electrification Method in which the salon professional hands the electrode to the client before activating the current.
visible light The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum humans can see.
white light The visible light that can be broken into its individual wavelengths by a prism.
Wavelengths Measurement of waves from the crest of one to the crest of the next.
fluorescent light Creates blue tones or cool casts in the objects it lights.
incandescent light Produces redder tones or warmer casts in the objects it lights.
LED Light Have a lifespan and electrical efficiency that is several times better than incandescent and fluorescent lamps.
invisible light Range of light the human eye cannot see.


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