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Exam 2 Adult Health

Respiratory 19, 20, 21

QuestionAnswer
Rhinitis inflammation of nasal mucous membranes
Coryza common cold
Rhinorrhea clear nasal discharge
Sinusitis -also known as rhinosinusitis- inflammation of the sinuses
Pharyngitis inflammation of the throat -often associated with rhinitis
Tonsilitis inflammation of the tonsils
Adenoiditis inflammation of the adenoids
Tonsillectomy operative removal of the tonsils
Adenoidectomy operative removal of the adenoids
Peritonsillar abscess abscess that develops the connective tissue between the capsule of the tonsil and the constrictor muscle of the pharynx
Laryngitis inflammation and swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the larynx
Epistaxis nosebleed
Deviated septum irregularity in the septum that results in nasal obstruction
Nasal polyps grape-like swellings that arise from the nasal mucous membranes
Hypertrophied turbinates enlargements of the nasal conchae, three bones that project from the lateral wall of the nasal cavity
Rhinoplasty reconstruction of the nose
Stridor high-pitched, harsh sound during respiration, indicative of airway obstruction
Hemoptysis expectoration of bloody sputum
Tracheostomy surgical opening into the trachea
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) characterized by recurrent and frequent episodes of upper airway obstruction and reduced ventilation
Apnea cessation of breathing
Central sleep apnea not a result of obstruction but rather occurs because the brain fails to signal the muscles to breathe
Complex sleep apnea combination of central & obstructive sleep apnea.
Polysomnography consists of tests that monitor the client's respiratory and cardiac status while asleep
CPAP provides constant airway pressure during inspiration and expiration
Bilevel positive airway pressure (BIPAP) provides two levels of pressure: inspiratory and expiratory airway pressures
Esophageal speech requires regurgitation of swallowed air and formation of words with lips -voice quality will be lower pitched and gruff sounding but more natural
Artificial (electric) larynx throat vibrator held against the neck that projects sound into the mouth -words are formed with the mouth -resulting voice sounds mechanical
Tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) surgical opening in posterior wall of trachea, followed by insertion of prosthesis -air from lungs is diverted through the opening in the posterior tracheal wall to the esophagus and out of the mouth
Tracheotomy surgical procedure that makes an opening into the trachea
Laryngospasm spasm of the laryngeal muscles, resulting in narrowing of the larynx
Adenoids lymphoid tissue located in the nasopharynx that protect the body from infection
Alveoli (sing. alveolus) small, clustered sac that begins where the bronchioles end and is the location for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Bronchi (sing. bronchus) one of two main branches of the trachea
Bronchioles smaller subdivisions of bronchi
Carina lower part of the trachea
Cilia hair-like processes whose action moves substances like mucus to prevent irritation to and contamination of the lower airway
Diaphragm muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
Diffusion process of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange through the alveolar-capillary membrane
Epiglottis cartilaginous valve flap that covers the opening to the larynx during swallowing
Ethmoidal sinuses honeycomb of small spaces contained in the ethmoid bone, located between the eyes
Frontal sinuses bony cavities that lie within the frontal bone that extends above the orbital cavities
Glottis opening between the vocal cords and
Hilus entrance of the bronchi to the lungs
Interstitium structure that lies between the alveoli and contains the pulmonary capillaries and elastic connective tissue
Larynx cartilaginous framework between the pharynx and the trachea whose primary function is to produce sound; it also protects the lower airway from foreign objects because of its ability to facilitate coughing
Lungs paired elastic structures enclosed by the thoracic cage that contain the alveoli
Maxillary sinuses cavities on either side of the nose in the maxillary bones; they are the largest sinuses and the most accessible to treatment
Mediastinum portion of the thoracic cavity that contains the trachea and major blood vessels
Nasal septum wall that divides the internal nose into two cavities
Nasopharynx part of the pharynx that is near the nose and above the soft palate
Oropharynx part of the pharynx that is near the mouth
Paranasal sinuses extension of the nasal cavity located in the surrounding facial bones
Parietal pleura saclike serous membrane that is the outer layer of the lungs
Perfusion supplying blood to the cells, tissues, or organs
Pharynx body structure that carries air from the nose to the larynx, and food from the mouth to the esophagus
Pleura saclike serous membrane located around the lung
Pleural space area containing serous fluid that separates and lubricates the visceral and parietal pleurae
Respiration exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between atmospheric air and the blood and between the blood and the cells
Sphenoidal sinuses bony cavities that lie behind the nasal cavity
Thoracentesis aspiration of excess fluid or air from the pleural space
Tonsils lymphoid structures within the soft palate of the oropharynx whose function is to filter bacteria from tissue fluid
Trachea hollow tube of smooth muscle and supported by C-shaped cartilage transports air from laryngeal pharynx to bronchi and lungs
Turbinates (conchae) bones that change flow of inspired air to moisturize and warm it
Ventilation movement of air into and out of the respiratory tract
Visceral pleura saclike serous membrane that covers the lung surface
Vocal cords folds of tissue within larynx that vibrate and produce sound as air passes through
Acute bronchitis inflammation of the mucous membranes that line the major bronchi and their branches
Asbestosis fibrous inflammation or chronic induration of the lungs caused by the inhalation of asbestos
Asthma reversible obstructive disease of the lower airway characterized by inflammation of the airway and a hyper-responsiveness of the airway to internal or external stimuli
Atelactasis disorder in which alveoli collapse
Bronchiectasis chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by chronic infection and irreversible dilation of the bronchi and bronchioles
Chronic bronchitis prolonged inflammation of the bronchi, accompanied by a chronic cough and excessive production of mucus for at least 3 months each year for two consecutive years
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) broad, nonspecific term that describes a group of pulmonary diseases with symptoms of chronic cough and expectoration, dyspnea, and impaired expiratory airflow
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most common type of pneumonia: client contracts illness in a community setting or within 48 hours of admission to health care facility
Cystic fibrosis multisystem disorder affecting infants, children, & young adults -results from defective autosomal recessive gene: the genetic mutation causes dysfunction of the exocrine glands, involving the mucus-secreting & eccrine sweat glands
Emphysema chronic pulmonary disease characterized by abnormal distention of the alveoli
Empyema collection of pus in a body cavity
Flail chest disorder that occurs when two or more adjacent ribs fracture in multiple places and the fragments are free floating; affects the stability of the chest wall and impairment of chest wall movement
Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) diagnosed in clients who generally reside in LTC facilities or who are on dialysis in outpatient centers
Hemoptysis expectoration of blood or bloody sputum
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) occurs in more than 48 hours after admission to a hospital -not present when client admitted
Influenza acute respiratory disease of relatively short duration
Lobectomy surgical removal of a lobe of a lung
Lung abscess localized area of pus formation in the lung parenchyma
Orthopnea breathing that is eased by sitting upright -difficulty breathing laying down
Pleural effusion abnormal collection of fluid between visceral and parietal pleurae
Pleurisy acute inflammation of the parietal and visceral pleurae
Pneumoconiosis fibrous inflammation or chronic induration of the lungs after prolonged exposure to dust or gases
Pneumonectomy surgical removal of an entire lung
Pneumonia inflammatory process affecting the bronchioles and alveoli
Pneumothrax air that enters the pleural space causing a lung to collapse
Pulmonary hypertension high pressure within pulmonary circulation
Pulmonary contusion crushing bruise of the lung
Pulmonary edema fluid accumulation in the interstitium and alveoli of the lungs, which interferes with gas exchange in the alveoli
Pulmonary embolism thrombus - blood clot- that migrates to pulmonary circulation
Restrictive lung disease decreased volume of the lungs with an inability to expand completely
Segmental resection surgical removal of a lobe segment of a lung
Septicemia condition resulting from microorganisms escaping the lymph nodes and reaching the blood stream, which may lead to sepsis
Silicosis fibrous inflammation or chronic induration of the lungs caused by the inhalation of silica
Subcutaneous emphysema presence of air in subcutaneous tissues
Thoracotomy surgical opening of the thorax
Tracheitis inflammation of the trachea
Tracheobronchitis inflammation of the mucous membrane that lines the trachea
Tuberculosis bacterial infectious disease primarily caused by M. tuberculosis
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) pneumonia that occurs 48 hours or more after endotracheal intubation
Wedge resection surgical removal of a pie-shaped portion of diseased tissue from a lung
Created by: ahoyyitbeaddi