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Hist of Micro

Chapter 1 BIO 275

Who pioneered the making of microscopes (often one per specimen): Leeuwenhoek
What did Leeuwenhoek primarily examine? water and "tiny animals/beasties"
What were the "beasties" Leeuwenhoek examined eventually named? microorganisms
What were the two components of Leeuwenhoek's microscope? lens and specimen holder
Who developed taxonomic classification of similar plants and animals? Linnaeus
6 categories of Leeuwenhoek's organisms: Bacteria, Archaea, fungi, protozoa, algae, multicellular organisms
Who 1st discovered the bacterial world? Leeuwenhoek
What are the 2 prokaryotes? Bacteria and archaea
what is the main characteristic of prokaryotes? cells that lack nuclei- thus genes NOT surrounded by a membrane
How do all prokaryotic cells reproduce? Asexually
How do prokaryotes compare to Eukaryotes in terms of size? smaller
T/F: most bacteria cause disease: false
Define peptidoglycan: polyacrylamide making up cell wall of bacteria
Do all bacteria contain peptidoglycan? no, because not all have cell walls
Do archaea contain peptoglycan? NO, their cell walls are composed of polymers
Types of Eukaryotes: fungi, protozoa, algae, small multicellular animals
What are the 2 types of fungi? molds and yeast
Why are fungi distinct from plants? obtain food from other organisms (don't make their own)
Where are prokaryotes found? everywhere there is sufficient moisture
Do fungi have cell walls? yes
Characteristics of molds: multicellular grow as long filaments reproduce by sexual and asexual spores
Characteristics of yeast: unicellular reproduce asexually by budding some produce sexual spores typically round
Characteristics of Protozoa: single-celled similar to animals in nutrient needs and cellular structure live freely in water/animal hosts mostly asexual reproduction but some sexual most capable of locomotion
What are the 3 modes of protozoa transportation? pseudopods, cilia, flagellum
Characteristics of Algae: uni/multicellular "photosynthetic Eukaryotes" (make own food from CO2 and H2O using energy from the sun simple reproductive structures categorized based on pigmentation and comp of cell wall
What microorganism did Leeuwenhoek not identify? viruses
Does life spontaneously generate? no
Philosophers/scientists of the past thought life was generated how? sexual reproduction, asexual reproduction, nonliving matter
Who proposed spontaneous generation? Aristotle
Describe Redi's experiment: when decaying meat was kept from flies, maggots never formed meat exposed to flies was soon infested
What did Redi's experiment lead to in the scientific community? doubt of Aristotle's theory
What did Needham experiment on/prove? scientists at this time thought large animals couldn't spontaneously appear, but thought microbes still could; experiment with meat/gravy infusion reinforced this idea**WRONG
Spallanzani's experiments contradicted who? Needham
3 conclusions of Spallanzani: N didn't heat vials sufficiently to kill all microbes or hadn't sealed them tightly enough Microorgs exist in air and can contaminate experiments Spontaneous generation of microorganisms does not occur; all living things arise from other living things
What did critics of Spallanzani say? too tightly sealed to allow organisms to survive & heated too long which killed "life force"
What kind of flasks did Pasteur use? Swan necked
What evidence did Pasteur's data support and how? Spontaneous generation ISN'T correct*** bc when flasks remained upright, no microbes appeared BUT when flask was tilted so dust entered, microbes appeared in a day + dust
What debate contributed significantly to the development of the scientific method? spontaneous generation
Describe the scientific method: observ---? ? --- hypothesis hypoth -leads to--experimental design ED---collect/analyze data Approve/or/disprove hypoth?
Accepted hypotheses lead to... theory/law development
Rejected hypotheses lead too... new hypotheses + rejected/modified
What skyrocketed fermentation research? spoiled wine threatened the livelihood of many grape growers- thus, funded by wine makers
the debate of what causes fermentation was closely related to what? debate on spontaneous generation
Who proved the cause of fermentation? Pasteur
How did Pasteur experiment and what did he find? put various substances into wine (sealed) and observed what happened: wine with bacteria produced acid and wine with yeast produced alchohol
Pasteur's experiments led to the development of what? pasteurization
What is pasteurization? the process of heating a liquid just enough to kill most of the bacteria
Pasteur's work began what field? industrial microbiology
What is industrial microbiology? intentional use of microbes for the manufacturing of products
What did Buchner's experiments prove? demonstrated fermentation doesn't require living cells; showed enzymes required chemical reactions
Buchner's experiments lead to the emerging of what field? biochemistry
Who developed germ theory for disease? Pasteur
What is germ theory for disease? Some diseases are caused by specific germs called pathogens
What did Koch study? causative agents of disease
Koch proved a bacteria caused what disease? Anthrax
What did Koch examine? colonies of microorganisms
What things were produced from Koch's experiments? simple staining techniques, 1st photos of bacteria, 1st photograph of bacteria in diseased tissue, technique to # bacteria in a solution, steam for sterilizing growth media, petri dish use, lab tech to transfer bacteria
Who discovered bacteria as a distinct species? Koch
What are Koch's postulates? Suspected causative agent must be in every case of dis. and absent from healthy Agent must be isolated and grown outside host When agent's introduced to healthy, susceptible host, host must get dis. Same agent must be found in dis'd experimental host
Gram is most remembered for what? most widely used staining technique
What does staining allow for? bacteria ID
Gram positive are what color? purple
Gram negative are what color? negative
Which medical professionals played a part in sanitation as a form of disease prevention? Semmelweis, Lister, Nightingale, Snow
Semmelweis emphasized what for disease prevention? handwashing
Lister created what for disease provention? antiseptic technique
Nightingale emphasized sanitation in what medical profession? nursing
Snow is most known for what? infection control and epidemiology
Jenner influenced what field of science? Immunology
Ehrlich influenced what field of science? chemotherapy
Kochs postulates lead to the discovery of what field? Etiology
Buchner lead to discovery of what field (s)? microbial metabolism genetics genetic modification
Fleming lead to discovery of what field? Pharmaceutical microbiology
Bacteriology studies... bacteria and archaea
phycology studies... algae
Mycology studies... fungi
Protozoology studies... protozoa
Parasitology studies... parasitic protozoa and parasitic animals
virology studies... viruses
microbial biology studies... Biochemistry: chemical reactions within cells
Microbial genetics studies... functions of DNA and RNA
Eniornmental microbiology studies... Relationships between micobes and among microbes, other organisms and their enviornments
Serology is the study of... Antibodies in blood serum, particularly as an indicator of infection
Immunology is the study of... body's defense against specific diseases
Epidemiology is the study of... frequency, distribution, and spread of diseases
Etiology is the study of... the cause of disease
Infection control is... Hygiene in a healthcare setting and control of nosocomial infections
What is chemotherapy? Development and use of drugs to treat infections diseases
Bio remediation is... use of microbes to reduce pollutants
What is public health microbiology? sewage treatment, water purification, and control of insects that spread disease
What is agricultural microbiology? use of microbes to control insects sand pests
Pharmaceutical microbiology manufacture of vaccines and antibiotics
What is recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering)? Alteration of useful genes to synthesize useful products
Biochemistry began with whose work? Pasteur on fermentation & Buchner's discovery of enzymes in yeast extract
Whose microbes were used as a model for biochemical reactions? Kluyver and van Niel
4 practical applications of Kluyver and van Niel's work: Design of herbicides and pesticides Diagnosis of illnesses and monitoring of patients’ responses to treatment Treatment of metabolic diseases Drug design
What fields detail how genes work? Microbial genetics Molecular biology Recombinant DNA technology Gene therapy
What three scientists said that genes are contained in molecules of DNA? Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty
Who established that a gene's activity is related to protein function? Beadle and Tatum
Molecular biology is... an explanation of cell function at a cellular level
Pauline proposed that gene sequences could... Provide understanding of evolutionary relationships and processes Establish taxonomic categories to reflect these relationships Identify existence of microbes that have never been cultured
What did Woese and Fox determine cells can be categorized as Eukaryotes, Bacteria, and Archaea
Cat scratch disease is caused by what? unculturable organism
What is Recombinant DNA technology? Genes in microbes, plants, and animals manipulated for practical applications
What are endospores? formation of resting stages within the bacterial cells
What is gene therapy? Inserting a missing gene or repairing a defective one in humans by inserting desired gene into host cells
What does bioremediation use and what does it do with those microorganisms? uses living bacteria, fungi, and algae to detoxify polluted environments
Bioremediation recycles what? chemicals such as carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur
Bioremediation can help determine what? causation for diseases
What's serology? the study of blood serum
What scientists are associated with serology? Von Behring and Kitasato (existence in the blood of chemicals that fight infection)
Immunology is... the study of the body's defenses against specific pathogens
Chemo therapists and their major discoveries: Fleming discovered penicillin Domagk discovered sulfa drugs
What are nosocomial infections? rampant in the 1800s, healthcare associated infections
Created by: smhoffman



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