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Social Psychology3

Vocabulary and Other Stuff

QuestionAnswer
Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the stiuation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
Foot-in-the-Door The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
Cognitive Dissonance the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent
Normative Social Influence Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
Informational Social Influence Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
Social Facilitation Improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered
Social Loafing The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
Deindividuation The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
Group Polarization The enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group
Groupthink The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal
Stereotype A generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
Ingroup "Us"--people with whom ones shares a common identity
Scapegoat Theory The theory that prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
Just-world Phenomenon The tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
Frustration-Aggression Principle The principle that frustration--the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal--creates anger, which can generate aggression
Conflict A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
Mere Exposure Effect The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
Social Exchange Theory The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
GRIT Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction--a strategy designed to decrease international tensions
Superordinate Goals Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
Central Route to Persuasion Involves being persuaded by the arguments or the content of the message.
Peripheral Route to Persuasion Involves being persuaded in a manner that is not based on the arguments or the message content. For example, the sound of the person's voice who is speaking.
Approach-approach Conflict A psychological conflict or a situation of indecision where an individual is confronted having to choose between two equally desirable alternatives.
Avoidance-avoidance Conflict A psychological conflict or a situation of indecision and vacillation when an individual has to choose between two undesirable alternatives.
Approach-avoidance Conflict A psychological conflict or a situation of indecision and vacillation when an individual is confronted with an event or object that has desirable and undesirable qualities.
Created by: clarefitz