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Altered Ventilation and Diffusion

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) a condition of severe acute inflammation and pulmonary edema without evidence of fluid overload or impaired cardiac function.
adventitious refers to an alteration in lung sounds , as with wheezing or crackles .
airtrapping decrease effective intake and especially CO2 release by retaining air within the alveoli because of loss of elasticity
anoxia the absolute deprivation of oxygen
aspiration a problem of inhaling a foreign substance into the lungs
asthma a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways resulting in intermittent or persistent airway obstruction caused by bronchial hyper responsiveness, inflammation bronchoconstriction, and excess mucous production
atelectasis a condition of collapse and nonaeration of the alveoli
atopic the process by which IgE responses are stimulated from exposure to typically benign substances
auscultation to listen with a stethoscope
bronchiectasis the irreversible dilation and destruction of the bronchial tree most often caused by chronic obstruction or infection
chronic bronchitis the presence of a persistent, productive cough that lasts for 3 months or longer for 2 or more consecutive years
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) a generic term that describes all chronic obstructive lung problems including asthma, emphysema and chronic bronchitis, separately or in combination
clubbing a painless enlargement and flattening of the tips of fingers or toes due to chronic hypoxia
compliance the expected distensibility, or expandability, of the lung tissue and chest wall
consolidation a solid mass in the lung tissue
cyanosis a results of a greater proportion of desaturated hemoglobin in the blood, which gives the blood a bluish hue
diffusing capacity a measurement of carbon monoxide (CO), oxygen, or nitric oxide transfer from inspired gas to pulmonary capillary blood; is reflective of the volume of a gas that diffuses through the alveolar capillary membrane each minute
dyspnea the subjective feeling of shortness of breath or the inability to get enough air
emphysema an irreversible enlargement of the air spaces beyond the terminal bronchioles, most notably in the alveoli, resulting in destruction of the alveolar walls and obstruction of airflow.
expectorate to spit out the mucus that is ejected during a cough
expiration the process of removing carbon dioxide out of the body through the lungs
forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) the maximal amount of air expired from the lungs in 1 second
forced vital capacity the maximal amount of air that is exhaled from the lungs during the forced exhalation
fully saturated a state in which all of the available seats for hemoglobin molecules are occupied on the red blood cell
hemptysis coughing up blood from the respiratory tract; defined by the presence of red blood cells in the sputum
hypercapnia a state of increased carbon dioxide in the blood
hypoxemia decreased oxygen in the arterial blood leading to a decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen (Pao2)
hypoxia cellular deprivation of oxygen
inspiration the process of breathing in to acquire oxygen
orthopnea the physical need to sit in an upright or standing position to reduce respiratory effort
oxygen saturation (Sao2) the amount of oxyhemoglobin; that is, the amount of hemoglobin that is combined. or saturated, with oxygen
oxyhemoglobin (hgb O2) the oxygen-hemoglobin combination within red blood cells
PAO2 the symbol for the partial pressure of carbon dioxide
Partial pressure the force exerted by gas molecules within a certain volume
perfusion the process of forcing blood or other fluid to flow through a vessel and into the vascular bed of a tissue for the purpose of providing oxygen and other nutrients
phlegm large amounts of sputum expectorated from the oropharynx
pneumonia Inflammation of the lungs occurring commonly in the bronchioles, interstitial lung tissue, or the alveoli
pneumothorax the presence of air in the pleura space that causes the lung to collapse
pulse oximetry a noninvasive method of determining hypoxemia even before clinical signs and symptoms are noted
purse lip breathing a process of holding the lips puckered tightly together while slowly exhaling to maintain positive airway pressure in the alveoli; this minimizes air trapping and promotes expiration of carbon dioxide
residual volume (RV) the volume of air that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration
respiration the process of oxygen use as a source of energy for production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and release of metabolic products from cells
respiratory failure a life-threatening condition that can result from any problem that severely affects ventilation, ventilation-perfusion matching, or diffusion
retractions the pulling in of accessory muscles usually in the intercostal, substernal, and supraclavicular spaces to promote more effective inspiration
sputum expectorated material
status asthmaticus a state of bronchospasm that is not reversed by the patient's medications or other measures
sufactant a lipoprotein lubricant that coats the inner portion of the alveous and promotes ease of expansion and repels fluid accumulation
tidal volume the amount of air that is exhaled after passive inspiration; this is the volume of air going in and out of the lungs at rest; in adults, this volume is approximately 500 mL
ventilation the movement of air into and out of the trachea, bronchi and lungs
vital capacity the maximal amount of air that can be moved in and out of the lungs with forced inhalation and exhalation
Created by: sboggs2398
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