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# Physical Science

### Chapter 12

Law of Reflection The angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence
Reflection Change in wave direction. When a wave encounters a barrier, it will reflect at an angle equal to the incoming angle.
Angle of Incidence The angle of incoming ray
Angle of Reflection The angle of the outgoing ray
Refraction Bending or distortion in wave appearance/ behavior as a result of changing mediums. (objects in water appear distorted)
Rules of Refraction 1.When light refracts into a substance where it must slow down, the light ray will bend toward a L _|_ to the surface it strikes.2.When light refracts into a substance where it speeds up, the light ray will bend away from a L_|_ to the surface it strikes
Diffraction When waves encounter corners or obstructions, and bend and spread out a as a result
Wave length Distance from crest to crest (or trough to trough)
Frequency The number of wave crests that pass a given point each second.
Amplitude the height of a wave, measured from the centerline of the wave to the top of a peak.
Crest Highest point of a wave
Trough Lowest point of a wave
Electromagnetic wave A type of wave that does not need to travel through a medium.
Mechanical wave A disturbance or variation which travels through a medium. The particles in the medium do not travel with the wave.
Longitudinal wave The direction of propagation is parallel to its direction of oscillation.
Transverse wave The direction of propagation (travel) is perpendicular to the direction of oscillation.
Supersonic speed Any speed that is faster than the speed of sound in that particular substance
Mach The speed jets can travel through the air Mach 1 = speed of sound in air (@25*C about 346 m/s) Mach 2 = twice the speed of sound in air
Sonic Boom The sound produced when an object travels through air faster than Mach 1.
Pitch A measure of how high or low a sound is. The frequency of a wave determines the pitch of the sound heard.
Speed of sound in air formula v = 0.6(T)+331.5 m/sec V= speed of sound T = temperature in Celsius Units = m/sec
Basic function of our ears as it relates to sound waves The tympanic membrane is a thin layer of tissue that is tightly stretched across the ear canal making a "drum"
How the speed of sound changes depending on the medium The more dense the medium, the faster sound will travel. (ex: sound will travel faster in a solid than a liquid and a liquid faster than a gas)
Relationship between wavelength, frequency, and speed Wavelength and frequency are inversely proportional. When wavelength increases, frequency decreases. The faster the wave, the higher pitched it will be.
Calculate relationship between wavelength, frequency, and speed f=v/λ frequency=speed(velocity)/wavelength frequency is measured in Hertz (1/sec)
Basic function of our ears as it relates to sound waves (continued) When the compressions from the sound waves hit the membrane, it vibrates and causes the bones and nerves of the inner ear to electrical signals to the brain.
Relationship between wavelength, frequency, and speed (continued) (In the empty bottle , the sound waves travel all the way to the bottom of the bottle ....this means a wave with a LONG wavelength was formed. Since it had a LONG wavelength, the frequency was LOW Low frequency --> low-pitched sound)

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