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the shaking and trembling that results the movement of rock beneth the earth surface earthquake
two powerful forces that change rock and earths crust squeezepull
a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume stress
the amount of space and object takes up volume
stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions shearing
stress that pulls on the crust, stretching rock so that it becomes thiner in the middle tension
stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks compression
any change in the volume or shape of earth crust deformation
a break in the crust where slabs of crust slip past each other fault
rocks on either side of the fault slip past each other sideways with little up or down mountains shearing transform strike-slip fault
the fault is at an angle so one block of rock lies above the fault and the other block lies below the fault tension and divergent normal fault
half of the fault that lies above hanging wall
half of the fault that lies below footwall
a type of fault where the hanging wall slides up compression convergent reverse fault
a force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface friction
the rocks on both sides of the fault slide by each other with no sticking low friction
the sides of the fault jam together from time to time they break free small earth quakes occur medium friction on a fault
both sides of rock lockthe stress increases until it is strong enough to overcome the friction larger earthquakes occur high friction on a fault
a mountain that fomrs where a normal fault uplifts a block of rock fault-block mountain
where 2 plates move away from each other tnesion forces create many normal faultswhen 2 of these normal faults form parallel to each other, a block of rock is left lying between them. beginning process of a fault-block mountain
bend in rock that form when compression shortens and thickens part of earth's crust. folds
the collisions of 2 plates cause compression and folding of the crust. compression of 2 plates cause an earthquake
an up fold in a rock formed by comprssion of earth's crust anticline
a down fold in a rock formed by tension in earth's crust syncline
a large area of flatland elevated high above sealevel plateau
the lithesphere with in 100 kilometers of earth's surface where an earthquake is centered
the point beneath earth surface where rock that is stress breaks, triggering an earthquake. focus
the point on the surface directly above the focus epicenter
vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake scismic waves
how close the location is to the epicenter what determines how much the ground shakes during an earthquake.
when rocks fracture at the focus deep in the the earth's crust. when do earthquakes occur?
primary waves what are the first waves to occur in an earthquake?
earthquake waves that compress and expand the ground like accordion p waves
earthquake waves that vibrate side to side as well as up and down shaking the ground back and forth. s waves
move more slowly than both p and s waves how fast do surface waves move?
shake building side to side or shake like ocean rolls what do Surface Waves do?
by a device called seismograph how do we record and measure seismic waves
electronic seismographmechanical seismograph types of devices we use to record seismic waves
a measurement of earthquake strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults. magnitude
developed to rate earthquakes according to their intesity. Mercalli Scale
a rating of the size of seismic waves as measured by a particular type of mechanical seismograph Richter Scale
Electronical instead of mechanical what seismograph is used today?
accurate measurements for small nearby earthquakes, but the scale doesn't work well for large or distant earthquakes. how well does a Richter scale work?
a rating system that estimates the total energy released by an earthquake Moment Magnitude Scale
rates earthquakes of all sizes, near or far What does the Moment Magnitude Scale do?
Richter ScaleMercalli ScaleMoment Magnitude Scale What are the scales used to measure the strength of an earthquake?
5.0 and above A what magnitude on the Moment Magnitude Scale causes great distruction.
By the seismic waves speed. How is locating the epicenter?
The energy of the seismic waves tat reach the surface is greatest at the epic center At what point do seismic waves first reach the surface?
they travel through earth by seismic waves How does the energy of an earthquake travel through earth?
Created by: dMaTz