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Genetics

Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Amino Acids The basic building blocks of Proteins
Codon A sequence of three nitrogenous bases in the mRNA sequence that are specific for one amino acid
Differentiation The process that causes the cells of an organism to develop into specialized tissues and organs
Diploid The 2n number that is the normal number of chromosomes for a particular species. The human diploid number is 46
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid, the hereditary material all the genetic information. Made of repeating sub-units called nucleotides
Gametes Sex cells, sperm and egg, produced in Gonads, testies and ovaries
Gene A section of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a particular trait
Homologous Chromosomes A pair of chromosomes of the same size and shape that carry genes for the same trait
Mutation A change in the genetic material
Nucleotide The basic unit of nucleic acids. It consists of a phosphate group, a sugar and a nitrogenous base
Protein An organic compound made of amino acids
Protein Synthesis The making of a protein from amino acids by matching the anticodon of the transfer RNA to the codon of the Messenger RNA
Replication The copying of the exact base sequence of the DNA
Synthesis A chemical process in which small molecules are joined together to make larger molecules
Template A guide for the assembly of products to assure their uniformity
Variation A trait found in an individual that is different from the typical trait found in members of that species
Created by: TMashewske
 

 



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