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Gen. Bio II - Animal

General Biology II - Overview of Animal Diversity

animals are efficient (producers/consumers) consumers
animals are __________ multicellular, heteroprophic eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic layers
what does heterotroph mean an organism that feeds by ingesting food then using enzymes to digest said food within food
animals are multicellular but lack _______________ support from cell walls
because animal cells are not supported by a cell wall, how do animal bodies support animal cells external proteins help support animal cells and they connect them to one another (ex. collagen)
animal cells are organized into ________________, which consist of groups of similar cells that act as a functional unit tissue
most animal reproduce (sexually/asexually) sexually
in most animals (haploid/diploid) stage dominates their life cycle diploid
in animals haploid sperms and eggs are produced directly by meiosis
what is formed when an animal sperm (motile) and egg (non-motile) meet a diploid zygote is formed
after fertilization the zygote undergoes _________________________, which is the rapid succession of mitotic divisions without cell growth between divisions cleavage
the cleavage of a zygote leads to the formation of multicellular stage called _________________________ (in many animals, this stage takes form of hollow ball) blastula
after the blastula stage is a process called __________________, during which layers of embryonic tissues that develop into body parts are produced and results in developmental stage called _______________ gastulation; gastrula
life cycles of most animals include at least one ___________________ stage (except humans) laval
_____________________ is a sexually immature form of animal, that is morphologically distinct from adult, usually eats different food and may have different habitat than adult larva
larva undergo _________________, which is developmental transformation turns animal into juvenile that resembles adult but is not yet sexually mature metamorphosis
adult animals vary greatly in morphology, but all have similar ______________ that control development and ones that regulate expression of other genes genes
____________________ are sets of DNA sequences in regulatory genes homeoboxes
most animals share unique homeobox-containing family of genes knowns as ____________ genes Hox
why are Hox genes are important in ___________ embryo development
__________________ are among the simplest of extant animals, they lack Hox genes, but have other homeobox genes sponges
there are about __________________ million extant species of animals that have been identified 1.3
the animal kingdom (is/is not) very diverse and includes coral, cockroaches, and crocodiles the animal kingdom IS very diverse
the closest living relative of animals seem to be choanoflagellates
the _________________ DNA sequence analysis shows that the CCD region of protein domain is not present in choanoflagellates, but highly conserved in animals Cadherin
_________________ are the most generally accepted macroscopic fossils of animals dating from 560 mya ediacaran biota
ediacaran biota resemble ___________________ and others of the period and may be related to sponges and _________________ molluscs; cnidarians
ediacaran biota are (hard/soft) bodied soft bodied
fossils from this time show evidence of ________________ (ex. cloudina fossil with holes bore into its shell frome the attacker) predation
what is the cambrian explosion a wave of animal diversification about 525 mya, it was sudden and enormous
most of the animals that came about during the Cambrian explosion were _____________ bilaterians
what are the bilaterians an enormous clad whose members have two-sided or bilaterallly symmetric form and complete digestive tract
a lot more predator-prey relationships emerged during the __________________ period leading to a decline of soft-bodied organisms Cambrian
Ordovician, silurian, and devonian periods occured after the cambrian explosion with increased animal diversity though punctuated with ________________________ mass extictions
during the ordovician, silurian, and devonian periods ___________________ emerged as the top predators of the marine food chain/web vertebrates (fish)
during the ordovician, silurian, and devonian periods ___________________ were the first animals to adapt to terrestrial habitates arthropods
______________________ colonized the land around 365 mya vertebrates colonized the land around 365 mya
name the two type of vertebrates that colonized the land around 365 mya and still exist today 1) amphibians and 2) amniotes (reptiles including birds and mammals)
during the _____________ era, animals spread to new habitats and descent with modification led to the origin of tetrapods, wings, and other tools of flight mesozoic
dinosaurs emerged during the ____________________ era dinosaurs emerged during the MESOZOIC Era
the first mammals emerge during the mesozoic ara and were ______________ nocturnal insect eaters
the cenozoic era was ushered in by ________________________ cenozoic era was ushered in by mass extinctions
during the ___________________ era, there was a rise of large mammalian herbivores and predators as mammals rose to prominence cenozoic
a _______________ is a particular set of morphological and developmental traits integrated into functional whole-living animal body plan
body plan features include 1) symmetry, 2) tissues, 3) body cavities, 4) protostome and deuterostome development
(all/not all) animals are symmetrical to some extent NOT ALL animals are symmetrical (ex: sponges are not symmetrical)
the symmetry of the animal fits __________________ its lifestyle
name the two types of symmetry found in animals radial and bilarteral symmetry
what type of symmetrical is the human body bilateral symmetry
this type of symmetry is like taking an imaginary slice through a central axis and divides the animal into mirror images radial symmetry
_______________ symmetry divides the animals in to left side and right side bilateral symmetry (right and left)
in quadruped animals the dorsal side is the top (think "dorsal fin" on a shark or killer whale)
in quadruped animals the ventral side is the bottom
in quadruped animals the anteriof side is the front
in quadruped animals the posterior side is the back
(all/not all) animals have true tissues NOT ALL animals have true tissues (ex: sponges and a couple others)
tissues originate while the animal is still in embryo, they arise from specific layers during gastrulation, forming ______________________ germ layers
name the two main germ layers that occur in all animals ectoderm and endoderm
this germ layer covers the surface of embryo and gives rise to the outer covering in animals, sometimes to nervous system ectoderm - gives rise to the outer covering of animals
in embryos this is the innermost germ layer which lines the ouch that forms during the gastrulation (archenteron) and gives rise to the lining of the digestive track (or cavity) and organs such as liver and lungs of vertebrates endoderms - gives rise to the inner organs such as lungs, liver, and digestive organs
when the embryo of an animal has only two germ layers they are said to be _________________ diploblastic (includes only endoderm and ectoderm)
bilaterally symmetrical animals have a third germ layer called __________________ mesoderm
the mesoderm eventually forms into what tissues/organs muscles and most other organs between digestive tract and outer covering of the animal
Cnidrarians are (diploblastic/triploblastic) cnidrarians are DIPLOBLASTIC
animal embryos with that include a mesoderm during gastrulation phase are said to be triploblastic
most animals that are triploblastic (will/will not) have a body cavity triploblastic animals WILL have body cavities
what are body cavities fluid-filled or air-filled space between digestive tract and outer body wall
those animals who have body cavities are called coelum
a "true" coelum froms from the ______________________ germ layer and animals with a coelum are called _________________ mesoderm; coelomates
a body cavity that forms from the mesoderm AND the endoderm germ layers are called ______________________ and the animals that form this way as an embryo are called ___________________________ pseudocoelum; pseudocoelomates
a pseudocoelum (is/is not) a fully functioning body cavity psuedocoelum IS a fully functioning body cavity
animals that lack body cavities are acoelomates
what is the function of body cavities to suspend organs and help prevent internal injury
what is unique about an earthworms' coelum it contains non-compressible fluid that acts as a skeleton against which muscles can work
the unique coelum in an earthworm has another name, it is called the _____________________________ hydrostatic skeleton
what distinguishes the difference between protostome and deuterostome development differences in cleavage, coelum formation, and fate of blastopore
animals with protostome development undergo _________________ cleavage animals with protostome development undergo SPIRAL cleavage
in embryos with spiral cleavage, the planes of cell division is ____________________________________ diagonal to the vertical axis of the embryo
what is a determinate cleavage a rigidly cast developmental fate of each embryonic cell very early
deuterostome development is characterized by __________________ cleavage deuterostome development is characterized by RADIAL cleavage
embryos with radial cleavage the planes of cell division are __________________________________________ either parallel to or perpendicular to the vertical axis
indeterminate cleavage is when each cell produced early retains capacity to developer into compete embryo
I take a cell out of an embryo and the embryo grows into a fully functioning infant animal but does not have a left arm because that cell was taken out of the embryo. this is an example of (determinate/indeterminate) cleavage determinate cleavage
when developing into the digestive tube it initially forms into a ______________________________ blind pouch (archenteron) which becomes the gut
in a protestome, the archenteron forms from solid masses of mesoderm splitting and forming coelum
in deuterostome development, the archenteron buds from the mesoderm and a cavity becomes the coelum
define a blastopore indentation that during gastrulation leads to formation of archenteron
after archenteron develops in most animals a second opening forms at opposite end of gastrula- mostly becoming two openings of the _____________________ digestive tube
in a protostome development the mouth forms from the _____________ blastopore
in deuterostome, the mouth is derived from secondary opening and the blastopore forms the ________________ anus
all animals (do/do not) share a common ancestor all animals DO share a common ancestor
sponges are _________________ animals sponges are BASAL animals
___________________ is a clade of true animals with true tissues eumetazoa
most animals phyla belong to clade ____________________ (Hint: most animals have bilateral symmetry) Bilateria
what are the three major clades of bilaterians 1) deuterostomia, 2) ecdysozoa, 3) lophotrochozoa
this major bilateria clade sheds their exoskeleton ecdysozoa
this major bilateria clade are known as having lophophore (a crown of ciliated tentacles used for feeding) lophotrochozoa
Created by: kandriot



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