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Mental Health 2

Disorders of Children and Adolescents

Genetic studies indicated an 80% hereditability for ADHD
Alterations in _____ play a role in causing child and adolescent disorders. neurotransmitters
The style of behavior a child havitually uses to cope with the demands and expectations of the environment. temperament
An increase in norepinephrine and seratonin will cause what conditon? mania
Temperment is thought to be ________ determined. genetically
Severe marital discord, low socioeconomic status, large families and overcrowding,parental criminality, maternal psychiatric disorders, and foster care placement are familial risk factors that coorelate with child psychiatric disorders
Trusting others, interpreting reality, displaying a positive and realistic self-concept, coping with stress, developmental tasks, self expression, and relationships are characteristics of what? mentally healthy youth
Abnormal findings in the developmental and mental status assessments are often related to _____ and _____ problems, rather than to more serious disorders. stress, adjustment
______ is the third leading cause of death in adolescence. suicide
Sensitivity to cultural influences in mental illness is a necessity to avoid behavior ______ and ______ of assessment. stereotyping, clouding
This disorder in children is characterized by severe and pervasive impairment in reciprocal social interaction and communication skills accompanied by stereotypical behavior, interests, and activities; mental retardation is often evident pervasive developmental disorder (PDD)
a behavioral syndrome from abnormal brain function of unknown cause; problems with left hemisphere function such as language, logic, and reasoning. autistic disorder
Children with autistic disorder cannot show empathy
Autistic disorder is usually observed before _____ of age. 3 years
_______ differs from autistic disorder in that it appears to have a later onset and no significant delay in cognitive and language development is noted. Asperger's Disorder
This disorder is only seen in females and has been associated with electroencephalographic abnormalities, seizure disorder, and severe or profound mental retardation. Rett's Disorder
When is the onser of Rett's disorder? before 4 years of age
When assessing a child for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) what should be assesses? Spurts or lags, loss of previoulsly acquired abilities, quality of relationship between the child and parents or caregivers for evidence of bondong, assess for the risk for abuse.
What kinds of interventions are there for treating childresn with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD)? Therapeutic nursery schools, treatment programs, sepcial education classes in public schools.
Children with this disorder show an inappropriate degree of inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity. ADHD
It is difficult to diagnose ADHD before what age? 4 years
ADHD in the preschool child manifests itself as excessive gross motor activity
Children with ADHD are 3x more likely to have _____ and 5x more likely to have ________. nocturnal enuresis, daytime enuresis
Symptoms of ADHD from the DSM-IV-TR are inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity.
Recurrent pattern of negativistic, disobedient, hostile, defiant behavior toward authroity figureswithout serious violations of the rights of others. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
Children with __________ exhibit persistent stubborness and argumentativeness, persistent testing of limits, an unwillingness to give in or negotiate and a refusal to accept blame for misdeeds. oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is usually evident before 8 years
This disruptive disorder is characterized by a persistent pattern of behavior in which the rights of others and age appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. conduct disorder
This conduct disorder occurs prior to age 10 and is found mainly in males, who are physically aggressive, have poor peer relationships and show little concern for others and lack feelings of guilt or remorse. childhood-onset conduct disorder
Although children who have childhood onset conduct disorder try to project a tough image, the really have a low self esteem and low tolerance for frustration
Children who have this conduct disorder demonstrate less aggressive behaviors and more normal peer relationships. adolescent-onset conduct disorder
Youths who have adolescent-onset conduct disorder tend to _____ their misconduct with their _______. act out, peers
Psychiatric disorders that frequently coexist with conduct disorder are: anxiety,depression, ADHD, learning disabilities.
What are the assessment guidelines for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Disruptive Behavior Disorders? Assess the quality of the relationship between the child and parents, assess the parents or caregivers understanding of growth and development, and lags or deficits.
What are the assessment guidelines for ADHD? Observe for level of physical activity, atetention span, talkativeness, ability to make friends and performing in school, and problems with enuresis and encopresis.
What are the assessment guidelines for Oppositional Defiant Disorder? Identify issues that result in power struggles, assess the severity fo the defiant behavior and it's impact on the child's life.
What are the assessment guidelines for Conduct Disorder? Assess the seriousness of the disruptive behavior, assess the child's level of anxiety, aggression,anger, and hostility toward others.
What are the interventions for ADHD? Behavior modification, special education programs for the academic difficulties and psychotherapy and play therapy for theemotional problems that develop as a result of the disorder.
What medication is most effect in treating ADHD? Ritalin
What are the interentions for treating oppositional defiant and conduct disorders? Coping mechanisms, set consistent limits
In this childhood anxiety disorder, children and adolescents become excessively anxious when separated from or anticipating a separation from their home or parental figures. Separation anxiety disorder
Preschool children with PTSD tend to _______ the anxiety while school aged children tend to ______ their anxiety. internalize, externalize
This mood disorder found in children is characterized by motor and verbal tics that cause marked distress and significant impairment in social and occupational functioning. Tourettes
uttering of obscenities coprolalia
Nongenetic Tourettes disorder often coexists with PDD, a seizure disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or ADHD
A residual categor of disorders in children used for emotional responses to an identifiable stressor that do not meet the criteria for DSM-V-TR. adjustment disorder
The persistant eating of nonnutritive substances, although there is no aversion to eating food. pica
The repeated regurgitation and rechewing of food without apparent nausea, retching, or gastrointestinal problems. rumination
Group therapy for younger children takes the form of _______; for grade school children, it combines play and talk about the activity. play
Group therapy for adolescents involves more ____ and focuses on peer relationships and specific problems. talking
_____ _____ for children is designed to provide a safe, comfortable place to live, play, and learn, with areas for private time as well as group activity. milieu therapy
In cognitive behavioral therapy and the use of ______, the sizes of figures and body parts is noted; facial expressions, and integration of body parts. art
In the use of this int cognitive behavioral therapy for children, family and child all draw the same picture and elements are compared to the child's and observations are discussed. family art
Anger and agression from a child is a cry for help and a defense against a painful reality
A method of modifying the disruptive behavior of a child that will be perceived byt eht child as punishment is seclusion
K is the 8-year-old son of a mother who has had severe depression intermittently since K was born. The nurse who assesses K would expect to collect data that would suggest that K has a lack of knowledge of environmental mastery techniques
________ is the behavior the child habitually uses to cope with the environment temperment
The process of assessment with a child client differs from the process used for an adult client because for a child developmental level is considered in data analysis
Central nervous system stimulants such as methylphenidate are used to treat ADHD
The child's with _______ has marked hyperactivity that puts him or her at risk for injury from falls, bumping into objects, impulsively operating equipment, pulling heavy objects off shelves, and so forth. ADHD
The nurse should enter the child's world in a nonthreatening manner to establish trust before beginning to verbalize or engage in more intrusive attempts at _____. play
What is the least restrictive treatment approach that should be tried initially in dealing with a disruptive child is touch control
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