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Sleep MP

Sleep - Fall Semester UTHSCSA 3802

QuestionAnswer
What is the cycle that occurs every 24 hours in the sleep-wake cycle? Circadian rhythm
What is the cycle that is longer and slower than the circadian, with menstrual cycle being an example? Infradian rhythm
What is the cycle that is shorter and faster than the circadian, with cardiac cycle being an example? Ultradian rhythm
How many phases are there in the sleep cycle? Two
What are the phases of the sleep cycle? NREM and REM
How many stages are in the NREM phase? Four
What percent of NREM is stage 1? 5%
What percent of NREM is stage 2? 50-55%
What percent of NREM is stage 3? 10%
What percent of NREM is stage 4? 10%
What percent of REM is in the total sleep time (TST?) 20-25%
Is the sleep-wake cycle similar for everyone or is there individuality among each person? Individuality
What three physiological cycles are synchronized with the sleep-wake cycle? Body temperature, hormone levels and cell division.
Name three characteristics of NREM sleep? Slow rolling eye movements/none, muscle relaxation and decreased P BP R.
What is the function of NREM sleep? Physical restoration
Name six characteristics of REM sleep Rapid darting eye movements, small twitches on the face, loss of muscle tone, increased P BP CO, fluctuating P BP R, and irregular P R.
What is the function of REM sleep? Psychological/mental restoration
How many cycles per night for adults? 4-6 cycles/night
How long are each cycle and what is the average? 60-120 minutes and 90 minutes
What is the pattern for the adult sleep cycle? NREM then REM
What is different about the sleep cycle for neonates? TST 16 hours, 50% REM, 50% NREM, sleep starts with REM and NREM is not divided into stages.
What is different about the sleep cycle for a 3 months old? Circadian rhythm begins and starts sleep with NREM.
What is different about the sleep cycle for a 6 months old? NREM is divided into stages.
What is different about the sleep cycle for a 12 months old? TST is 14 hours.
What is different about the sleep cycle for a 3 year old? NREM is 33%.
What is different about the sleep cycle for a 6 year old? TST is 10-12 hours.
What is different about the sleep cycle for an adolescent? TST is 8-9 hours and REM is 25%
What is different about the sleep cycle for an adult? TST is 6-8 hours.
What is different about the sleep cycle for an older adult? Takes longer to fall asleep, awakens more frequently, less NREM 3&4, more NREM 1&2 and REM decreases.
What is the most popular position in which to sleep? Fetal position
Name seven factors that may affect the quantity and quality of sleep? Physical illness, drugs/medications, lifestyle, emotional stress, environment, nutrition and sensory deprivation.
Name four physical symptoms of sleep deprivation. Fine motor clumsiness, decrease reflexes, slowed response time and decreased auditory & visual alertness.
Name three mind-related symptoms of sleep deprivation. Reduced word memory, decreased reasoning & judgment and confusion & disorientation.
Name three physiological symptoms of sleep deprivation. Cardiac arrhythmias, excessive sleepiness and increased sensitivity to pain.
Name six behavioral symptoms of sleep deprivation. Irritability, withdrawn state, apathy, decreased motivation, agitation and hyperactivity.
Name three things that might cause REM deprivation. Sleep only 1st half of usual TST, awakened every hour/frequently and taking medication(s) that suppresses REM sleep.
What may occur when a person is REM deprived and provide an example. REM rebound, which is when you start seeing dreamscape images in reality.
What are the five ways in which insomnia is defined? Difficulty falling asleep (longer than 30 mins), difficulty staying asleep/frequent awakening, difficulty going back to sleep after awakening, awakening too early, or any combination thereof.
What is the incidence rate of insomnia? It is the most prevalent sleep disorder.
What is the cause? Most commonly associated with poor sleep habits.
What are some ways to treat insomnia? Symptomatic, so treatment varies but improved sleep hygiene measures and relaxation techniques help.
Name three insomnia therapies. Stimulus-control therapy, relaxation training and sleep restriction therapy.
What is the name of the condition when cessation of breathing for a time occurs during sleep (5 or more episodes lasting longer than 10 seconds/hour per night)? Sleep apnea.
What are the three types of sleep apnea? Obstructive, central and mixed.
What is obstructive sleep apnea? Upper airway is blocked, requiring respiratory effort.
What is central sleep apnea? No respiratory effort, where impulse to breath temporarily fails (e.g. COPD with lots of 02).
What are some symptoms of sleep apnea? Loud snoring with periods of apnea, frequent awakening at night, excessive daytime sleepiness, morning headaches, fatigue and irritability.
What are three ways to treat sleep apnea? Behavioral therapy, physical/mechanical therapy and surgery.
What does behavioral therapy for sleep apnea entail? Weight loss if obese, avoidance of alcohol & smoking and positional therapy.
What does physical/mechanical therapy for sleep apnea entail? Dental appliance, positive airway pressure devices to keep the airway flowing and open (e.g. CPAP and BiPaP).
What does surgery for sleep apnea entail? Nasal septum repair and palatal surgery (e.g. uvulopalatopharyngoplasty or UP3).
What are five measures to promote sleep? Adequate assessment, planning activities to maximize time for rest & sleep, provide comfort measures, establish sleep environment and patient education.
Name four things you ask a patient to make a proper sleep assessment. Time individual goes to sleep/awakens, number of hours of sleep, if naps are taken(when and how long), and if the patient feels rested.
What are eight useful additional data if a sleep problem is indicated? Symptoms, medications, physical health, emotional status, major life changes, sleep environment, consumption of alcohol/caffeine and what was already tried to alleviate the problem.
What are six things that are good for establishing a healthy sleep environment? Presleep/bedtime routine, decreased light & noise, avoid excessive physical & mental stimulation, consistent time for sleep, voiding before goign to bed, and avoiding alcohol/smoking.
Created by: markperalta