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Chapter 11 A&P Muscl

the muscles

Muscular system is? the voluntary controlled muscles of the body
what do the muscular system and muscles tissue do? They contribute to homeostatis by producing movement, stabilizing body posiion, regulating organ volume, moving substances witht the body, and producing heat.
Skeletal muscles work together or in? opposition
Do muscles pull or push? They pull (they never push)
As muscles shorte, the insertion generally moves toward the? orgin
Whatever a muscle (or group of muscles) does, another muscle? "undoes"
a lever is? a rigid structure that moves aroudna fixed point.
The fixed point of a rigid structure that moves around is? Fulcrum
The lever is acted on by two different forces? Resistance ande ffort
What is resistance (load) (L) Which opposes movement
What is Effort (E) ? which causes movement bones serve as levers and joints serve as fulcrums
Leverage is? the mechanical advantage gained by a lever, is largely responsible for a muscle's strength and range of motion (ROM) Example, max. ability to move the bones of a joint through an arc.
Lever systems: classes: first class? the fulcrum is between the load and the effort
Lever system classes: second class? The load is between the fulcrum and the effort
Lever system classes: Third Class? the effort is applied between the fulcrum and the load.
what is a fulcrum? Muscles thats act on rigid rod (bone) that moves around a fixed point.
what is resistance? the weight of body part and perhaps an object.
What are the mechanical advantages of the lever system? 1. The muscle whose attachment is farther fromt he joint will produce the most force.2. The muscle attaching closer to the joint has the greater rangle of motion and the faster the speed it can produce.
In the FIRST class lever- it can produce mechanical advantage or not depending on? Location of effort and resistance.
what happens if the effort is further than the fulcrum compared to the resistance? a strong resistance can be moved.
The head resting on vertebral column...weight of face is the? the joints are between? and what muscles provide effort? Weight of face is the resistance.Joint between skull and atlas is fulcrum.Posterior neck muscles provide effort.
Second class lever is similar to? the Wheelbarrow.
Second Class lever always produces mechanical advantage which is? resistance is always closer to the fulcrum than the effort.
Second class lever sacrifices what for what? Sacrifices speed for force.
Second class lever- Raising up on your toes...where is the resistance, fulcrum, and effort? resistance is the body weight.Fulcrum is ball of foot.Effort is contraction of calf muscles which pull heel up off of floor.
Third class lever- Most what? in the body? Most common.
Third class lever always produces a mechanical advantage which is? effort is always closer to fulcrum than resistance.
Third class lever favors what over what? Favors speed and range of motion over force.
third class lever- Flexor muscles at the elbow...what is the resistance? Fulcrum? Effort? resistance is weight in hand.Fulcrum is elbow joint.Effort is contraction of bicepts brachii muscle.
Skeletal muscles ____________ and __________ on the bones they are attached to. Shorten and pull
Muscle Attachment sites: Orgin is? Orgin is the bone that does not move when muscle shortens (normally proximal).
Muscle attachment sites: Insertion is? Insertion is the movable bone (some 2 joint muscles).
Fleshy portion of the muscle in between attachment sites is? The belly.
Arrangement of fascicles: what is parallel? Parallel is fascicles run parallel tot he long axis of the muscle. For example: sartoris.
Arrangement of Fascicles: what is Fusiform? Fusiform is spindle shaped muscles For example: biceps brachii.
Arrangement of Fascicles: what is Pennate? pennate is short fascicles that attch obliquely to a central tendon running the length of the muscle. For Example: Rectus Femoris.
Arrangement of Fascicles: what is Convergent? Convergent is fascicles coverge from broad origin to a single tendon insertion. For Example: Pectoralis Major
Arrangement of Fascicles: what is Circular? Circular is fascicles are arranged in concentric rings. For Example: orbicularis oris.
A contracting muscle shortens toa bout ----- of its length? 70% of its length.
Fascicluar arrangement represent a compromise between? Force of contraction (power) and Range of Motion.
Muscles with longer fibers have a greater what? range of Motion.
a short fiber can contract as ----- as a long one. forcefully
Most movement is the result of ? Several muscles working at the same time in a functional group.
Prime movers are? Provide the major force for producing a specific movement.
Antagonist are? oppose or reverse a particular movement.
synergists is? Add force to a movementReduce undesirable or unnecessary movement
Fixators are? Synergists that immobilize a bone or muscle's orgin.
Location of muscle is? Bone or body region associated witht eh muscle.
Shape of muscles are? e.g. the deltoid muscle (deltoid=triangle).
relative Size is? e.g. maximus (largest) minimus (smallest) and longus (long)
direction of fibers are? e.g. rectus (fibers run straight), transversus and oblique (fibers run at angles to an imaginary defined axis).
The most important characteristics include the direction in which the muscle fibers run? the size, shape, action, number of origins, and location of the muscl, the site of origin and insertion of the muscle.
What shape is Quadratus fermoris? Square Shape
Serratus anterior shape is? saw-toothed edge.
The Epicranius aka Occipitofrontalis: the bipartite muscle consisting of what part of the scalp? Frontalis, Occipitalis, Galea aponeurotica.
Frontalis, occipitalis, and Galea aponeurotica have alternate actions of? pulling the scalp forward and backward.
Galea Aponeurotica is? cranial aponeurosis connecting above muscles.
there are 11 muscles of the face that are involved in doing what? lifing the eyebrows, flaring the nostrils, opening and closing the eyes and mouth, and smiling.
The muscles of the face are innervated by what nerve? Cranial Nerve VII (Facial Nerve)
What does orbicularis oculi do? closes the eye.
The Levator Palpebrae superioris does? opens the eye.
What does the orbicularis oris do? Puckers the mouth.
The buccinator forms the muscular portion of the? cheek and assists in whistling, blowing, sucking, and chewing.
There are how many muscles involved in mastication? 4
What are the prime movers in mastication? Temporalis and masseters
The grinding movements of mastication are done by what muscles? Pterygoids adn buccinators.
What Cranial nerve is innervated with mastication? Also what is it actually called? Nerve Number V, and Trigeminal nerve.
How many major muscles that anchor and move the tongue? And all are innervated by what nerve? 3 and cranial nerve XII (hypoglossal Nerve)
Genioglossus is? from the inside tip of mandible.
Styloglossus is? From styloid process
Hyoglossus is? from hyoid bone
the four deep throat muscles functions are? 1.from the floor of the oral cavity2. anchor the tongue3. elevate the hyoid4. superiorly during swallowing
Digastric is? extends from mandible to mastoid process used to open the mouth.
mylohyoid is? extends from hyoid to mandible: supports floor of mouth and elevates hyoid bone during swallowing .
Stylohyoid and Geniohyoid is? elevates they hyoid during swallowing
Infrahyoid is? Straplike muscles that depress the hyoid and larynx during swallowing and speaking. Its also the inferior pharyngeal constrictor.
Major head flexor is? the sternocleidomastoid
synergists to head flexion are? the suprahyoid and infrahyoid.
Lateral head movements are? accomplished by the sternocleidomastoid and scalene muscles.
Head extension is? accomplished by the deep splenius muscles and aided by the superficial trapezius.
What does the sternocleidomastoid do? there are 4 criteria. Arises from sternum and clavicle and inserts mastoid process of skull. innervated by cranial XI contraction of both flexes the cervical vertebrae & extends head contraction of one, laterally flexes the neck and rotates face in opposite direction
the extrinsic muscles of the eyeballs. Name the details for this. Extrinsic muscles insert onto white of eyeFastest contracting & most precisely controlledCranial nerves 3, 4 & 6 innervate the six muscles4 Rectus muscles & 2 obliques
The intrinsic muscles are? found within the eyeball
Levator palpebrae superioris does? raises eyelid.
All the anterior thoracic muscles are? Subclavis, pectoralis minor, serratus anterior
subclavis extends from? 1st rib to clavicle
Pectoralis minor extends from? ribs to corcoid process.
Serraturs anterior extends from? ribs to inner surface of scapula
Posterior thoracic muscles are? Trapezius,levator scapulae, and Rhomboideus
Trapezius extends from? skull and vertebrae to clavicle and scapula
Levator scapulae extends from? from cervical vertebrae to scapula.
Rhomboideus extends from? thoracic verterbrae to verterbral border of scapula.
what are the anterior muscles of the thoracic? pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, serratus anterior, and subclavis.
What are the posterior muscles of the thoracic? latissimus dorsi, trapezius muscles, levator scapulae, and rhomboids
The anterior and posterior muscles of the thorax: the muscles are involved in the movements of? scapula including elevation, depression, rotation, and lateral and medial movements
prime movers of the shoulder elevation is? trapezius and levator scapulae
prime movers of crossing the shoulder muscles are? pectoralis, latissimus dorsi and posterior fibers of the deltoid, Middle fibers of the deltoid.
Pectoralis major is? arm flexion
Latissimus dorsi and posterior fibers of the deltoid is? are extension
Middle fibers fo the deltoid is? are abduction.
Rotator cuff muscles are comprised of what muscles?? Suproaspinalis, infraspinalis, teres minor, and subscpularis
Rotator cuff muscles are? function mainly to reinforce the capsule of the shoulder. Secondarily act as synergists and fixators.
The coracobrachialis and teres minor are? act as synergist and Do not contribute to reinforcement of the shoulder joint.
Pectoralis major and Latissimus dorsi extend from? body wall to humerus.
Rotator cuff muscles extend from? Posterior to shoulder joint to attach to the humerus
Flexors of the Forearm: Biceps Brachii is? Scapula to radial tuberosityFlexes shoulder and elbow and supinates hand
Flexors of the forearm: Brachialis is? Humerus to ulnaflexion of elbow
Flexors of the forearm: Brachioradialis is? Humerus to radiusFlexes elbow
Extensors of the forearm: Triceps brachii is? Long head arises scapulamedial and lateral heads from humerusinserts on ulnaextends elbow and shoulder joints
Extensors of the Forearm: Anconeus is? assists triceps brachii in extending the elbow.
Pronator teres is? Medial epicondyle to radius so contraction tums palm of hand down towards floor.
Flexor carpi muscles are? Radialis and ulnaris
Flexor digitorium muscles are? Superficialis and Profundus
Muscles that pronate and flex are? Pronator teres, flexor carpi muscles, Flexor carpi muscles, flexor digitorium muscles, and flexor pollicis.
Muscles that supinate and extend are? Supinator and Extensions of wrist and fingers
Supinator is? lateral epicondyle of humerus to radius
Extensors of wrist and fingers are? extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorium, extensor pollicis longus, and extensor indicis
what muscles are not flexors but pronate the forearm? Pronator teres and pronator quadratus
what muscles are anterior muscles? and what muscles are posterior muscles? Anterior- flexorPosterior extensors
Retinaculum is? Tough connective tissue band that helps hold tendons in place Extensor & Flexor retinaculum cross wrist region attaching from bone to bone (carpal tunnel syndrome = painful compression of median nerve due to narrowing passageway under flexor retinaculum
what do the intrinsic muscles of the hand do? Origins & insertions are within the handHelp move the digitsThenar muscles move the thumbHypothenar muscles move the little fingerOpposition, flexion, extension, abduction & adduction
Intrinsic muscles of the hand: the small muscle do? Lie in the palm of the hand (none on the dorsal side) Move the metacarpals and fingersControl precise movements (e.g., threading a needle)Are the main abductors and adductors of the fingersProduce opposition – move the thumb toward the little finger
The thenareminsence is? ball of the thumb
Hypothenareminence is? ball of the little finger
thenareminsence and Hypothenareminence have what type of muscles? flexor, abductor, and opponens
The midpalm muscles, lumbricals and interossei extend what? Fingers
The interossei also what the fingers? abduct and adduct the fingers.
The primary function of the deep thoracic muscles is? to promote movement for breathing
External intercostals are? more superficial layer that lifts the rib cage and increases thoracic volume to allow inspiration.
Internal intercostals are? deeper layer that aids in forced expirration
Diaphragm is? most important muscle in inspiration.
Muscles that move the vertebrae they are quite complex due to overlap and erector spinae fibers run longitudinally in what 3 groups? spinalis, iliocostalis, and longissimus and they also extend vertebral column.
Smaller deeper muscles of the muscles that move the verterbrae Transversospinalis group is? semispinalis, multifidis and rotators.
Smaller deeper muscles of muscles that move the vertebrae is? run from transverse process to dorsal spine of vertebrae above & help rotate vertebrae
Scalene group muscles do? Attach cervical vertebrae to uppermost ribsFlex, laterally flex & rotate the head
there are 4 sheetlike muscles which are? rectus abdominis=vertically oriented, external and interobliques, and transverse abdominis.
Inguinal ligament is from the? anterior superior iliac spine to the upper surface of body pubis.
Inguinal canal is? passageway from pelvis through body wall musculature opening seen as superficial inguinal ring.
Inguinal hemia is? rupture or separation of abdominal wall allowing protrusion of part of the small intestine. (more common in males)
Rectus sheath is formed from? connective tissue aponeuroses of other abdominal muscles as they insert in the midline connective tissue called the linea alba
Linea Alba is connective tissue aponeuroses of other abdominal muscles as they insert in the midline connective tissue
For breathing to occur the change in size of the what is required? Thorax
During inspiration, thoracic cavity increases in size how does that occur? external intercostal lift the ribs diaphragm contracts & dome is flattened
Expiration, the thoracic cavity decreases in size how? internal intercostal mm used in forced expiration.
what fills in the gap between the hip bones? Pelvic diaphragm and the muscles of the perineum.
Pelvic diaphragm and muscles of the perineum does what? supports pelvic viscera & resists increased abdominal pressure during defecation, urination, coughing, vomiting,
pierced by anal canal, vagina & urethra in females -------- may be damaged during episiotomy during childbirth (urinary incontinence during coughing) levator ani
The pelvic diaphragm consist of two paired muscles which are? Levator ani and coocygeus
Levator ani and coccygeus are? Close the inferior outlet of the pelvisSupport the pelvic floorElevate the pelvic floor to help release feces Resist increased intra-abdominal pressure
Two sphincter muscles allow voluntary control of? Urination (sphincter uretrae) and Defecation (external anal sphincter)
The Ischiocavemous and bulbospongiosus assist in? erection of the penis and clitoris.
Muscle arrangement forms urogential diaphragm assists in? urination (external urethral sphincter) and ejaculation (ischiocavernosus, bulbospongiosus)
Iliopsoas flexes hip joint in? arises lumbar vertebrae and ilium Inserts on lesser trochanter
Quadriceps femoris has 4 heads which are? Rectus femoris crosses hip3 heads arise from femurall act to extend the knee
adductor muscles are? bring legs togethercross hip joint mediallysee next picture
pulled groin muscle is? result of quick sprint activitystretching or tearing of iliopsoas or adductor muscle
Movements of the thigh at the hip are? Flexion and Extension
Thigh extension is? Primarily effected by the hamstring muscles biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus)
Forceful extension is? aided by the gluteus maximus.
adductor group of muscle extend from? pelvis to linea aspera on posterior surface of femr
Adductor muscles of the thigh are? pectineusadductor longusadductor brevisgracilisadductor magnus (hip extensor)
abduction and rotation are? ( Movements of the thigh at the hip) effected by the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus, and are antagonized by the lateral rotators
Thigh Adduction is? (movement of thigh at the hip) the role of five adductor muscles (adductor magnus, adductor longus, and adductor brevis; the pectineus, and the gracilis)
Gluteus muscles are? Maximus, medius, and minimusMaximus extends the hipmedius and minimus abduct the hip
Deeper muscles ------ rotate the femur laterally
Hamstring muscles are? semimembranosus (medial)semitendinosus (medial)biceps femoris (lateral)extend hip & flex knee
pulled hamstring is? tear of origin of muscles from ischial tuberosity
The sole extensor of the knee is? quadriceps femoris
the hamstring muscles flex? and are antagonists to? the knee; quadraceps femoris
A deep fascia of the leg is? continuous with the fascia lata
The fascia segregates the leg into three compartments which are? anterior, lateral and posterior
Distally, the fascia thickens and forms the? flexor, extensor, and fibular retinaculae
3 muscles insert onto the calcaneous (calf) which are? gastrocnemius, plantaris, and soleus
Gastronemis are femus...? it flexes knee and ankle
Plantaris and soleus are from leg which? flexes ankle
Deeper mm a rise from tibia or fibula the muscles are? tibialis posteriorflexor digitorum longusflexor hallucis longus
anterior compartment of the leg: Extensors of teh ankle or toes are? tibialis anteriorextensor digitorum longusextensor hallucis longus
tendons pass under the? retinaculum
Shinsplits syndrome is? pain or soreness on anterior tibiarunning on hard surfaces
The lateral compartment of the leg is? peroneus mm plantarflex the foottendons pass posteriorly to axis of ankle joint and into plantar foot
The muscles of the anterior compartment: these muscles are? the primary toe extensors and ankle dorsiflexors.
Muscles of teh anterior compartment: they include what muscles? the tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus, and fibularis tertius
Muscles of the lateral compartment are? and include what muscles? These muscles plantar flex and evert the footThey include the fibularis longus and fibularis brevis muscles
Muscles of the posterior compartment are? and they include what muscles? These muscles primarily flex the foot and the toesThey include the gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, and flexor hallucis longus
4 layers of the muscles of the plantar foot is? getting shorter as it goes into deeper layers
The muscles of the plantar foot are? Flex, adduct & abduct toesDigiti minimi muscles move little toeHallucis muscles move big toePlantar fasciitis (painful heel syndrome) chronic irritation of plantar aponeurosis at calcaneusimproper shoes & weight gain
What is the first layer of the plantar muscles? Superficial muscles of the plantar aspect of the footThese muscles are similar to the corresponding muscles of the hand
what is Tenosynovitis and how is it caused? Inflammation of tendon and associated connective tissues at certain jointswrist, elbows and shoulder commonly affectedPain associated with movementCausestrauma, strain or excessive exercise
Compartment syndrome: skeletal mucles in the limbs are? organized in units called compartments.
Compartement syndrome is? some external or internal pressure constricts the structures within a compartment, resulting in damaged blood vessels and subsequent reduction of the blood supply to the structures within the compartment.
If no intervention in compartment syndrome what could happen? nerves suffer damage, and muscle develop scar tissue that results in permanent shortening of the muscles, a condition called contracture.
Intramuscular injection (IM)is? penetrates the skin, subcutaneous tissue and enters the muscle.
IM is given when? rapid absorption is necessary for large doses or when a drug irritating to subcutaneous tissue.
common sites of injection of an IM is? gluteus medius, vastul lateralis, and deltoid.
IM injections are faster than ----- meds, but slower then ----- meds. oral; IV
Created by: victoriad87