Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.

By signing up, I agree to StudyStack's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
remaining cards
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Chapter 10 A&P

Muscle Tissue

Smooth muscle is? Involuntary
Smooth muscle contains what organs? Vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries) GI tract, Uterus, and Arrector Pili muscle
Skeletal Muscle is? Voluntary
Skeletal Muscle moves between what? Joints and bones
Cardiac muscle is? Involuntary
Cardiac Muscle contains what organ? Heart
At the molecular level there are six general players in muscle contraction what are the six? four proteins and Calcium and ATP
What are the Four proteins called in Molecular level? Actin, Myosin, Tropomyosin, and Troponin
Actin G-actin is what type of arrangement? Double Helical chain
Actin G-actin is in a double helical chain arrangement forming what? F-actin
Tropomyosin part of the ___ ___ entwines around the F-actin thin filament
what forms the thin filament? F-actin, Troponin, and Tropomyosin
Neurotransmitter bound to a postsynaptic neuron which is? Produces a continuous postsynaptic effectBlocks reception of additional “messages” Must be removed from its receptor
Removal of neurotransmitters occurs when they? Are degraded by enzymesAre reabsorbed by astrocytes or the presynaptic terminals Diffuse from the synaptic cleft
The receptors Nicoltinicacetylcholine. These receptors are ______ _______ _____ _____ and without them there would be no _____ _____ Ligand gated ion channels; muscle contraction
Step one of the cross Bridge cycling: Exposure of Binding Sites of Actin which is? Following an action potential there is an influx of Calcium, triggering the exposure of binding sites of actin.
Step two of Brdige crossing cycling: Binding of Myosin to Actin which is? When binding sites on actin are exposed an energized myosin can bind the actin.
Step three of the Bridge crossing cycling: Power Stroke of the cross bridge which is? The chemical energy of ATP, by hydrolysis of the phosphate bond, has been converted to mechanical energy instigating a conformational change in myosin causing a power stroke.
Step four of the Bridge crossing cycling: Disconnecting the cross bridge from Actin which is? The binding of ATP to the cross bridge results in the cross bridge disconnection from actin.
Step five of the cross bridge crossing cycling: Re-energizing and Repositioning the Cross bridge which is? Hydrolysis of ATP, which leads to the there energizing and repositioning of the cross bridge.
Step six of the cross bridge crossing cycling: Removal of Calcium which is? The transport of calcium ions back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. For every two calcium pumped back into the terminal cisternae requires one ATP.
Does the myosin cross bridge form in unison? NO it does not
What are the roles of ATP? 1.Energizing the power stroke of the myosin cross bridge.2. Disconnecting the myosin cross bridge from the binding site of actin at the conclusion of the power stroke3. Removing ca from the cytosol back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum by the ca ion pump
We obtain energy from ATP by? Hydrolysis
We synthesize ATP by? Dehydration Synthesis
Muscle stores ATP in a ? Limited supply (as ATP currency)
The byproduct of using ATP is? Heat
An example of using a byproduct of using ATP as heat is? when we are cold we shiver to produce ATP to generate heat. This is a homeostatic adaptive mechanism in response to heat.
Creatine phosphate from ATP is? the immediate source of ATP, which is generate by substrate phosphoriation.
Krebs cycle plus the oxidative phosphorylation, also called the ? electron transport system.
Glucose from muscle glycogenand from blood which is supplied from? the diet and from liver gylcogen
_____ ______ is the important in short periods of high demand. Creatine Phosphate
_____ _____ which maintains ATP at constant concentration during short periods of exercise. Creatine Phosphokinase
With no ATP the muscles go into? Rigor
When muscle supply of ATP are low, muscle cells use three sources to provide ATP: what is the first source? 1. Hydrolysis of creatine phosphate, while the muscle cell are using creatine phosphate another form of energy is relied upon number 2...
When muscle supply of ATP are low, muscle cells use three sources to provide ATP: what is source number 2? Glycolysis: 2 ATP + 2 pyruvic acid or two lactic acids during Anaerobic conditions. During aerobic conditions the 2 pyruvic acids are converted to 2 acetyl-co-Awhich enter the Kreb's cycle.
When Muscle supply of ATP are low, muscle cells use three sources to provide ATP: what is source number 3? Kreb's cycle (also called the citric acid cycle) and oxidative phosphorylation (also called the elctron transport system). the end products or Kreb's cycle and Oxidative phosphorylation are Co2, H2O, and 36 ATP.
The next phase after exercise is the restoration of ATP and/or oxygen dept which is (4 steps)? 1. Convert the lactic acid back to pyruvic acid2. Resynthesize creatine Phosphate3. Bind oxygen to myoglobin4. and finally restore glycogen in muscle and in the liver.
_____ ______ units, containing few muscle cells, are found where precise movements are needed...give examples. Small motor; ex: eye muscles
______ _____ units, containing many muscle cell per muscle fiber, are needed for gross motor movement...give examples. Large Motor; ex: Muscles of he thigh
Increased Calcium release and the taken up elastic components of muscle adds to the ? unfused and fused tetanus
What process are essentially temporal summation of muscle contraction? Summation process
What is a Treppe? No temporal summation because the muscle had time to recover.
What is Temporal Summation? Resulted in increase of tension due to increasing calcium.
What is Incomplete Tetanus? Short contraction-relaxation cycle resulting in greater contraction.
What is complete Tetanus? Contracion fuse (lots of Calcium)
what is fatigue? build up of acidic compounds, lack of ATP, due to lack of oxygen.
What is Concentric isotonic contraction? picking up a weight.
What is Eccentric Isotonic Contration? Lowering a weight
what is Isometric Contraction? holding a weight.
What are red fibers? Lots of myoglobin and mitochondria and more blood vessels
What are white fibers? Low myoglobin, less mitochondria and fewer blood vessels.
Different speeds of contraction due to how rapidly the muscle fibers? hydrolyze ATP
Skeletal muscle fibers vary in? metabolic reaction they use to generate ATP and how fast they fatigue.
what is Slow and Fast fatiguing? The terms slow and fast does not refer to the rate of twitch it refers to the rate of fatigue. The exception to the this rule are the fast oxidative Glycolytic Fibers which are resistant to fatigue.
Visceral (single unit) smooth muscle tissue is? Small arteries and veins, hollow organs (digestive tract) urinary bladder and uterus
Multiunit smooth muscle tissue is? Found in large arteries, lungs, erector pili of hair follicles, iris, ciliary body of the lens.
Created by: victoriad87