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HLTINF001

Comply with infection prevention and control policies and procedures

TermDefinition
Infection Control The prevention of the spread of micro-organisms. the selection and use of procedures and products to prevent the spread of infectious disease.
Bacteria simple, one celled organisms that multiply rapidly. They can form spores. Example: TB, tetanus
Viruses Very small, smaller than bacteria, only can be seen by microscope. Example: Hep A, B, C, HIV, Influenza, Chicken pox
What is a Pathogen? Pathos = disease Gen = to produce Pathogen = A disease causing organism
Fungi simple, plant like organisms that live on organic matter.
Direct Transmission skin to skin
Indirect Transmission contact with contaminated object/surface. Example Fomite
Airborne Transmission by airborne droplets or dust containing the infectious agent
Droplet Transmission respiratory droplets generated when patient coughs, sneezes, talks. Transmission through nose and/or mouth
Standard Precautions Precautions we use when we have to come in contact with any bodily fluids Work practices required for a safe, basic level of infection control for ALL patients regardless of their perceived infectious status
Standard precautions apply to:  Blood  All body substances  Non-intact skin  Mucous membranes
Personal Protective Equipment  Gloves  Apron  Protective eyewear  Mask
When are gloves worn? Gloves are to be worn at all times when performing any type of Pathology procedure, as a barrier to protect hands from contamination or to prevent transfer of organisms already on the hands
When are Apron, Eyewear & Masks worn? Apron, Eyewear & Mask: - must be worn where there is a likelihood of splashing or splattering of blood or other body substances e.g.: throat swab, urea breath test, separating specimens, etc.
How is bleach solution prepared? Bleach solution prepared in a 1:10 ratio E.g. 100 mL bleach with 900 mL water
Spill kit consists of:  Instructions  Personal protective equipment: mask, apron, gloves  Material with which to absorb the spill: absorbent powder, Ph neutral detergent, absorbent cleaning cloths  Biohazard waste bag (yellow bag)  Scoop and scraper
Cleaning Spills with Spill Kit 1 Use PPE provided in kit. 2 Absorb spill with paper towel by wiping from the outside towards the centre. 3 Dispose of into the biohazard bag. 4 Pour absorbent powder evenly over the spill. 5 Allow powder to absorb. 6Use scraper and scoop
Cleaning of a Centrifuge Safety alert : PPE must be worn – goggles, gloves, and apron. Routine cleaning:  Turn machine off  Wipe interior of centrifuge with solution for cleaning the centrifuge  Wipe dry
Specimen breakage during centrifugation don PPE Tweezers used to remove broken tube. Turn the centrifuge off immediately and wait 20 minutes for the aerosol to settle Remove pieces of broken tube with the tweezers and dispose in sharps container
Bench - roll or bunk paper need to be changed after each patient, if sheets are soiled replace with fresh linen immediately. If soiled with body fluids (except sweat) dispose of in contaminated waste otherwise in normal waste
Dental bib single use-must be changed after every patient
Kidney dish: to be wiped with alcohol wipes after every patient
Linen with blood: place it in linen bag and send it to laundry
Types of waste bins: 1. Sharp bin 2. Contaminated/biohazard bin 3. Normal bin
What goes in the sharps bin? Broken glass/needles/glass slide/razor
What goes in Contaminated bin? Blood stained cotton ball, tube/that may have a drop of blood, gloves, alcohol wipe and anything contaminated is disposed into contaminated bin.
What goes in Normal bin /Domestic?  Bed roll: if soiled with sweat only; otherwise in contaminated waste.  Wrapping from band-aid/alcohol wipes.  Lid from the needle.  Any other waste that has not been in contact with body fluids.
Clean areas: Administration/Clerical/Reception areas/ Staff tea room
Dirty areas: Specimen reception and preparation areas, collecting rooms, toilets
What to do for a needle stick injury?  Step 1 – Allow to bleed freely, DO NOT squeeze  Step 2 – Wash exposed area with soap and water  Step 3 – Apply clean dressing
What to do for a splash on intact skin?  – Wash area with soap and water
What to do for eye splash?  Step 1 – Do not rub affected eye/s  Step 2 – Rinse the eye gently and thoroughly with water or normal saline, and allow water to run to the outside of the face to prevent contamination of the other eye
What to do for mouth splash?  Step 1 – Spit out and rinse well with water several times
Who to contact and report the incident?  Supervisor/Area Manager/Collection Manager
Incident Report Form:  Must be completed ASAP no longer than 24 hrs  Submit to your Supervisor/ Manager
microorganism/microbe a small living organism that is not visible to the naked eye
airborne precautions: pt. must be in private room with doors shut each person who enters the room must wear respiratory protection and PPE
droplet precautions used on patients who are infected with pathogens transmitted by large particle droplets expelled during coughing, sneezing, talking, or laughing
Gowns, masks and eye protection Worn during any procedure that causes splashing or spraying of body fluids
Biohazard a substance that poses a biologic risk because it is contaminated with biomaterial with a potential for transmitting infection.
Susceptible host host not possessing resistance against an infectious agent.
Pathogen a virus, microorganism, or other substance that causes disease.
Fomite an inanimate object or material on which disease-producing agents(microorganisms) may be conveyed.
asepsis or aseptic technique means continually striving for the _______ __ _________ absence of pathogens
for an infection to develop, each link in the chain of infection must be _________ Connected
types of microorganisms Bacteria, Viruses, Funghi
the most effective way to decrease the spread of infection is? Hand Washing
the 4 modes of pathogen transmission: Direct, indirect, airborne, droplet, vector
What are the 6 links in the chain of infection? 1. The infectious agent 2. Reservoir 3. Portals of entry 4. Modes of Transmission 5. Portals of exit 6. Susceptible host
What is an infection? An infection occurs when invading micro-organisms cause ill health. They include : Viruses Bacteria Fungi Protozoa Prions
For Infection to Occur: 1. Microorganisms must enter the body 2. Grow and multiply 3. Cause a response – signs and symptoms
Infectious agent bacteria, virus, funghi
Reservoir people, food, equipment, food, soil, water
Portal of exit blood, excretions, secretions
Transmission direct/indirect contact, airborne, droplet, vector
Portal of entry broken skin, respiratory tract, body orifices, mucous membranes
Susceptible host elderly, chronically ill, invasive procedures, newborn, immunosuppressed, unvaccinated
Break the chain of infection by: Handwashing Standard precautions Additional precautions Sharps safety Exposure policy Staff vaccination Single use policy Waste management policy
Handwashing Techniques 1. Routine hand wash 10-15 seconds 2. Aseptic procedures 1 minute 3. Surgical wash 3-5 minutes
Additional Precautions Used for patients known or suspected to be infected or colonised with infectious agents that cannot be contained with standard precautions alone.
Additional Precautions Single room with ensuite Dedicated toilet – diarrhoea Cohorting Special ventilation + use of protective barriers – Tb particulate mask Rostering of immune HCWs to care for patients Dedicated patient equipment Restricted movement of patients
Safe Handling of Sharps Use appropriate sharps containers Discard used sharps immediately Do not pass sharps by hand between HCWs Avoid recapping needles Do not force sharps into container Do not over-fill sharps containers
Exposure Policy First aid Report incident promptly to management Evaluation of exposure – medical practitioner Action Follow-up action, counselling Ensure full documentation of incident
Single Use Policy Single use equipment minimises the risk of cross-infection Any items marked by manufacturer as single use should be discarded after use Single use vials or ampoules must be used wherever these are available
Staff Health Good personal hygiene Seek prompt diagnosis and treatment of personal illness Staff immunisation
Blood and Body Substances Don personal protective equipment Confine and contain the spill Treat waste as infectious Clean spill site according to hospital policy Carpet – clean with neutral detergent and arrange carpet cleaner as soon as possible
Linen Clean and soiled linen kept separate PPE when handling soiled linen Place wet/contaminated linen in a see- through plastic bag – to prevent leakage Only ¾ fill linen bags Used linen must not be rinsed or sorted in resident/patient care areas
Waste Management Waste should be segregated at point of generation Place clinical waste in yellow containers or bags bearing biohazard symbol Do not over fill bags or containers Do not compact by hand Follow state and national guidelines or codes
Created by: Mitchimas