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Mental Health 2

Substance-Related Disorders

_______ is usually referred to as the gateway drug because it is frequently the first or one of the first drugs that young people use. Marijuana
An animal tranquilizer used by veterinarians that causes hallucinations in humans. Ketamine (Special K)
When breathed i nthrough the mouth or nose, these substances act on the CNS, producing dizziness, ataxia, excitement, and euphoria that may lead to aggressive ness and impulsivity. Inhalants
This stage of withdrawal from alcohol begins 8 hours or more afterabstinence from alcohol. Symptoms are mild tremors, nausea, anxiety, rapid heart rate, increased BPm and diaphoresis. Stage 1
In this stage of withdrawal from alcohol, the symptoms are gross tremors, anxiety, hyperactivity, insomnia, anorexia, generalized weakness, disorientation, illusions, nightmares, hallucinations (mostly visual). Stage 2
This stage of withdrawal from alcohol begins 12 to 48 hours after abstinence. Additional symptoms are severe hallucinations and grand mal seizures. Stage 3
Stages 2 and 3 of withdrawal from alcohol are known as Delirium Tremens
This stage of withdrawal from alcohol begins 3 to 5 days after abstinence. Symptoms are delirium tremens manifested by confusion, severe psychomotor activity, agitation, sleeplessness, hallucinations, and uncontrolled and unexplained tachycardia. Stage 4
What does the first level of treatment focus on? Acute care for detoxification and withdrawal.
What does the second level of treatment focus on? Chronic health problems, both physical and psychologic, that result from excessive or long term use of drugs.
What does the third level of treatment focus on? Assisting the client to rebuild a life without drugs.
Treatment of opiate withdrawal consists of what? Opiate substitution; Clonidine or a combination of Clonidine and naltrexone.
Addiction is characterized by: loss of control of substance consumption;substancde use despite associated problems; tendency to relapse
What culture has a low metabolism rate of ETOH? Asians
What kind of drugs are barbituates? CNS depressants
ETOH delirium peaks at ______ and lasts _____. 2-3 days, 2-3 days
What are the ggenitourinary complications of ETOH? Urinary retention and UTI's, edema with a decrease in ADH
What are the gastrointestinal complications of ETOH? Increases HCL,increased belching, decreased appetite, diarrhea/constipation, AM nausea and vomitting, esophagitis and varices, gastritis, decreased absorption of vitamins and nutrients.
What are the reproductive complications of ETOH? Skipped menses, decreased libido, imbalanced sex hormones, increase in breast size and decrease in testicles.
What are the cardiovascular complications of ETOH? cardiomyopathy, beri-beri with decreased thiamine, A-fib, sinus tachycardia with palpitations.
What are the hematological complications of ETOH? anemia due to decreased nutrients to make RBC's, chemotaxia=WBC mobilization, decreased platelets=bruise easily.
Use of inhalants may be an early marker of substance abuse
" I get the impression life has been getting difficult for you" is an example of what kind of patient communication? validating/empathizing
"sometimes it feels as if no one understands, but I would like to try." is an example of what kind of patient communication? reflection/empathy
"Loss is difficult; tell me about your loss." is an example of what kind of patient communication? encouraging client to share painful feelings
"Tell me what you are feeling right now." is an example of what kind of patient communication? encouraging expression of feelings while they are at the surface
"What does the valium do to help you?" is an example of what kind of patient communication? exploring drug dependence in a non-threatening way
"I understand you entered the program here after your court appearance." is what kind of patient communication validating precipitating event
"What do you think about the treatment idea?" is what kind of patient communication? encouraging evaluation
"I understand your involvement with cocaine has created problems for you." is what kind of patient communication? point out realities
"Are you saying you do not need a treatment program?" is what kind of patient communication? validating patients perception
"you messed up?" is what kind of patient communication? restating
"let's talk more about that." is what kind of patient communication? clarifying
What are the characteristics of the 1st through 6th months of sobriety? Physical changes: the body adapts, emotional, responses of family/coworkers to clients new behavior is addressed, new coping skills used.
Alcoholism psychopharmacology consists of what medications? naltrexone, acamprosate, and antabuse
Treatment of opioid addiction is done with what medications? methadone, LAAM, naltrexone, clonidine, and subutex
Continuous monitoring and evaluation increase the chances for prolonged recovery