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Molecular Genetics

TermDefinition
DNA Replication The process in which the DNA in the chromosomes is copied.
Double Helix DNA is composed of two strands twisted together.
Nitrogen Base A carbon ring structure that contains one or more atoms of nitrogen.
Codon A group of three nitrogenous bases in mRNA that code for one amino acid.
mRNA (aka messenger RNA) brings instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the cell's factory floor, the cytoplasm.
rRNA The ribosome, made of ribosomal RNA, binds to the mRNA and uses the instructions to assemble the amino acids in the correct order.
Transcription The process in which enzymes make an RNA copy of a portion of a DNA strand in the nucleus.
tRNA (aka transfer RNA) delivers amino acids to the ribosome to be assembled into a protein.
Translation The process of converting the information in a sequence of nitrogenous bases in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids in protein.
Chromosomal mutation Structural changes in the chromosomes.
Frameshift mutation A mutation in which a single base is added to or deleted from DNA because it shifts the reading of codons by one base.
Mutagen Any agent that can cause a change in DNA.
Mutataion Any change in the DNA sequence.
Point Mutation Mutation in a DNA sequence; occurs from a change in a single base pair.
Clone Genetically identical copies of an organism or gene.
Gene splicing In recombinant DNA technology, the rejoining of DNA fragments by vectors and other enzymes.
Genetic Engineering Method of cutting DNA from one organism and inserting the DNA fragment into a host organism of the same or a different species.
Plasmid Small ring of DNA found in a bacterial cell that is used as a biological vector.
Recombination DNA DNA made by recombining fragments of DNA from different sources
Restriction Enzyme DAN-cutting enzymes that can cut both strands of a DNA molecule at a specific nucleotide sequence.
Transgenic organism Organisms that contain functional recombinant DNA from a different organism.
Vector Means by which DNA from another species can be carried into the host cell; may be biological or mechanical.
Gene Therapy Insertion of normal genes into human cells to correct genetic disorders.
Human Genome Map of the approximately 80,000 genes on 46 human chromosomes that when mapped and sequenced, may provide information on the treatment or cure of genetic disorders.
Linkage Map Genetic map that shows the location of genes on a chromosome.
Created by: csmith3878
 

 



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