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Biochemistry Vocab

TermDefinition
acid a compound that releases Hydrogen ions when mixed with water. pH 0-6.9
amino acid the monomer (building block) of proteins
atom the basic unit of matter
base a compound that releases Hydroxide ions when mixed with water. pH 8-14
carbohydrate a complex macromolecule that provides short term energy.
compound two or more elements combined, example water
covalent bond a bond formed when electrons are shared between two atoms
disaccharide any sugar that contains two monosaccharides
element a pure substance made of only one type of atom, example gold
enzyme a molecule that speeds up a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy needed
fatty acid one of the building blocks of lipids, forms one or two tails depending on the lipid
glycerol another building block of lipids, forms the "head" of the lipid
hydrogen bond a bond formed between two molecules when the positive hydrogen bonds with a negative oxygen in the case of water
ion an atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons. "hydrogen ions"
lipid macromolecule used for long term energy storage, waterproofing, insulation
metabolism all the chemical reactions that take place in a living organism
mixture a substance where the individual parts can be physically separated
molecule a group of atoms bonded together that are the smallest functional unit of a chemical compound
monosaccharide monomer of a carbohydrate, example glucose
monomer a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer. ex: many glucoses = carbohydrate
nucleic acid macromolecule that plays a role in storing and transmitting genetic information. DNA and RNA
nucleotide monomer of a nucleic acid. made of a nitrogen base, sugar, and phosphate group
peptide bond a type of covalent bond that holds amino acids together to make a peptide/protein
pH a scale used to specify how acidic or basic a water-based solution is. Acids - 0-6.9 Bases 8-14
polar molecule a molecule, like water, that has sides that are slightly positive and negative
polymer a macromolecule made of many monomers, like carbs and proteins
protein macromolecule made of amino acids, used for structure, speeding up chemical reactions, as messenger hormones
solution a liquid mixture where the solute is uniformly distributed (soda)
Created by: renee.loy
 

 



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