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CH 13-15

In primary production: there is a net gain in organic carbon
Bacteria that make their own carbohydrates by obtaining energy from chemical compounds and not directly from the sun are: Chemosynthetic bacteria
Net primary productivity is: A and B are correct
The nutrients that tend to limit photosynthesis in marine environments include: B and C are correct
The depth at which the cellular respiration rate equals the photosynthetic rate is referred to as the compensation depth for photosynthesis
The most abundant marine macro algae are members of the Division: Rhodophyta
Diatoms important producers in the epipelagic open ocean, are members of the Division: Chrysophyta
The organism that is responsible for red tides and paralytic shellfish poisining belongs to the division pyrrophyta
important marine autotraphs that have SiO2 incorporated in the cell walls are: diatoms
marine flowering plants include all of the following except: Ulva
Over production of organic matter resulting in anoxic conditions is attributed to eutrophication
Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs): may produce toxins that affect human neurological functioning
Eutrophication is a type of pollution caused by increased: inorganic nutrient input
The relative productivity in the world's oceans from most productive to least productive is: polar waters, temperate waters, tropical waters
in temperate oceans during the winter months: nutrient concentrations are high, solar input is low, and water temperatures decrease
In temperate oceans during the summer months nutrient concentrations are low, solar input is high, and oxygen solubility decreases
although primary productivity in tropical areas is generally low, which of the following tropical locations have relatively high primary productivity rates? all of the above tropical areas have relatively high primary productivity
an area of the open ocean where the rate of primary productivity is very low is referred to as a oligotrophic area
productivity in polar oceans is: light-limited
productivity in tropical oceans is: nutrient-limited
if 10,000 KCAL of energy were contained in the primary producers, on average how many KCAL of energy would you expect to be transfered to third-order consumers? 10 KCAL
Nutrient flow in an ecosystem is: cyclic
energy flow in an ecosystem is: unindirectional
the efficiency of trophic transfers in ecoystem average around 10%
which of the following is an incorrect match between organisms and the type of symbiotic relationship they manifest? whale-barnicle; mutualism
the percentage of biomass regularly recycled in the euphotic zone is about: 90%
the percentage of of euphotic zone biomass that reaches the deep ocean floor reaches about 1%
a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected is commenalism
the relationship between cynobacteria and fungi that results in a lichen is an example of: mutualism
the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) is best defined as: largest catch that can be taken without overfishing
the area of the ocean that produces the largest standing stock of commercial fish is in the: contential shelves
the term bycatch refers to: non-target species that are caught along with commercial species
all of the following are effective means of regulating fisheries except: limiting the size of the boat
catches above the maximum sustainable yield: result in overfishing
purse seines are nets that: surround and trap fishes
the mass percent at a given time of a population fish is called its standing stock
all of the following are adaptions to life in the epipelagic zone except: increased density
which of the following is a member of of the Phylum Cnidaria jellyfish
identify the mismatched pair Suid-chordata
which fins are used for turning and braking pectoral and pelvic
which fins are used as stabalizers anal and dorsal
the shape of the caudal fin of a shark is referred to as hecterocercal
the caudaul fin of fast-cruising fish such as tuna is lunate
the body shape among fishes varies greatly in accordance with habitat and lifestyle. A tornado shaped body is found among fast swimming fishes
which of the following is not an adaption for deep diving in Cetaceans? blood flow is shifted from the brain to the extremities
a modified circulatory system in tuna helps it: all of the above statements are a result of modified circulation in tuna
all of the following are adaptions of mesopelagic fishes except large body
bioluminescence is employed by mesopelagic animals for all of the following except: warning coloration
which of the following affect the ability of species to capture food? all of the above affect the ability of pelagic organisms to capture food
an example of a cruiser is a tuna
the muscle tissue of a lunger is predominantly white
the speed of its fish is closely related length
cruisers often have relatively high body temperatures because it increases the power output of muscle tissue
all of the following are baleen whales except: sperm whales
identify the mismatched pair manatee- cetacea
sea lions are easily distinguished from seals because they have external ears
gray whales migrate every year to mate and give birth in the tropics during winter
Word Analysis copepod
Word Analysis Ventral
Word Analysis collapsible ribs
Word Analysis killer
all of the following are example of strategies employed by organisms to survive wave shock in the rocky intertidal zone except: motile larve
the most important limiting factor for the number of organisms in the rocky middle tide zone is: space
a common inhabitant of the supralittoral zone on the rocky shores of the pacific northwest is the periwinkle snail
two dominant organisms of the rocky shore found high on the rocks of the intertidal zone are buckshot barnacle and rockweed
two frequent inhabitants of a rocky coast tide pools are: sea anemone and hermit crab
two dominant organisms commonly found at mid-water levels of the rocky intertidal zone are: goose barnicle and mussel
some organisms living in the high water portion of the intertidal zone cannot survive in the supralittoral zone because they: cannot tolerate desiccation
the low-water portion of the rocky intertidal zone is dominated by seaweeds and surf grasses
male fiddler crabs us their enlarged claw to attract a mate
which of the following marine habitats has the lowest species diversity? mud flat
the most successful adaptation for living on a sediment-covered shore is burrowing into the sediment
the depth to the which a bivalve can bury itself depends on the lenth of the respitory structure
the common annelid found in a sandy beach enivorment is the: lugworm
organisms that live in the spaces between sediment particles are called: meiofauna
the sublittoral rocky bottom zone is dominated by: kelp
oysters prefer clean moving water
which of the following factors does not limit coral growth high concentrations of calcium carbonate in the water
eutrophication is detrimental to coral growth because it increases the: amount of inorganic nutrients in the water that stimulates execessive algal growth
Zooxanthellae are autotrophic marine protists that are found in the living tissues of some simple marine invertebrates such as corals, sea anemones, and jellyfish. Zooxanthellae are members of the: divsion dinoflagellata
the relationship between the protistan zooxanthelle and the polyps of reef-building corals is best described as a obligate mutualistic endosymbiosis
coral with delicate growth patterns are usually found on the reef slope
the buttress zone of a coral reef is likely to have which variety of coral? massive branching corals
which of the following is a threat to coral reef survival all of the above might contribute to the decline of a coral community
the loss of color (coral bleaching) in coral reef organisms is caused by: loss of zooxanthelle
the distribution of benthic biomass is related to surface productivity
primary producers in hydromerthal vent communities are: sulfar-oxidizing bacteria
the three varities of seeps on the seafloor include hypersaline, hydrocarbon and: subduction zone seeps
subduction zone seeps support communities from methane-rich waters
most of the hyrdrothermal vents and cool-water seeps on the seafloor were discovered during which decade 1980s
hydrocarbon seeps have been discovered in the gulf mexico
all the following are associated with hypersaline seeps except: very high temperature
Created by: sml07g