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Unit 3 Vocab

Plate Tectonics

TermDefinition
Asthenosphere The layer on top of Earth's mantle.
Subduction Process by which one tectonic plate slips beneath another tectonic plate.
Seafloor Spreading The hypothesis that new ocean crust is formed at mid-ocean ridges and destroyed at deep sea trenches it occurs in a continuation cycle of magma intrusion and spreading.
Mantle convection A driving mechanism of plate movements.
Ridge push Tectonic process associated with convection currents in Earth's mantle that occurs when the weight of an elevated ridge push an oceanic plate toward a suduction zone.
Slab pull Tectonic process associated with convection currents in Earth's mantle that occurs when the weight of the subductiong plate pulls the trailing lithosphere into a subduction zone.
Lava Magma that flows out into Earth's surface.
Magma Slushy mix of molten rock and dissolved gases and mineral crystals.
Tectonic Plate Large pieces of Earth's crust that cover its surface and fit together at the edges.
Theory of Continental Drift Pangaea; how it drifted apart.
Convergent Boundary Places where two tectonic plates are moving towards each other. Associated with trenches, island marks and folded mountains.
Divergent Boundary Places where two of Earth's tectonic plates are moving apart. Associated with volcanism, earthquakes and high heat flow. It is found mainly found on the sea floor.
Transform Boundary A region where two plates slide horizontally past each other.
Hot Spot Hot regions of Earth's mantle.
Epicenter Point on Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake.
Focus Point of the initial fault rupture where an earthquake originates that usually lies at least several kilometers beneath Earth's surface.
Pangaea Ancient landmass made up of all the continents that began to break apart about 200 mya.
Geohazard Natural disasters caused by Earth like landslides
Reverse Fault A fault due to horizontal and vertical compression that squeezes rock and creates a shortening of the crust.
Strike- Slip Fault A fault caused by horizontal shortening.
Normal Fault Standard value for a location, including rainfall, wind speed, and temperatures, based on meteorological records complied for at least 30 years.
Compression Stress that decreases the volume of a material.
Tension Stress that pulls a material apart.
Shearing Stress that causes material to twist.
Felsic An igneous rock that is defined as a light colored rock.
Mafic An igneous rock that is defined as a dark colored rock.