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Unit 3 Vocab

Plate tectonics

Asthenosphere The upper mantle (one of Earth's layers)
Subduction When two plates collide, the less denser plate eventually descends below the other
Seafloor Spreading The theory that explains how new oceanic crust formed at ocean-ridges, slowly moved away from ocean ridges, and destroyed at deep sea trenches
Mantle convection The driving mechanism of plate movements (cooler mantle sinks, warmer mantle rises)
Ridge push When older seafloor sinks, the weight of the uplifted ridge is thought to push the oceanic plate towards the trench formed at the subduction zone
Slab pull The weight of the cool, dense subducting plate pulls the trailing slab into the subduction zone
Lava Magma that flows out onto the Earth's surface
Magma Molten material that forms and accumulates beneath the Earth's surface
Tectonic Plate Huge pieces of crust and rigid upper mantle that fit together at their edges to cover the Earth's surface
Theory of continental drift Alfred Wegener's hypothesis that all of the continents were all together at one point (a.k.a. Pangaea)
Convergent Boundary Two tectonic plates colliding towards each other
Divergent Boundary Regions where two tectonic plates move apart
Transform Boundary A region where two tectonic plates slide horizontally past each other
Hot spot A region of heated magma in the mantle below
Epicenter The point on Earth's surface directly above the focus
Focus The point of failure where the first body waves originate
Pangaea All of the continents fitting together like a puzzle piece
Geohazard Environmental problems that can cause a lot of damage
Reverse Fault Upward vertical movement along a fault plane caused by compression
Normal Fault Downward vertical movement along a fault plane caused by tension
Strike-slip Fault Horizontal movement along a fault plane caused by shear
Compression Stress that decreases the volume of a material
Tension Stress that pulls the material apart
Shearing Stress that causes material to twist
Felsic Igneous rocks (Granite rocks) that are light colored rocks and have high silica components, and contain mostly quartz and feldspar
Mafic Igneous rocks (Basaltic rocks) that are dark colored and have low silica contents, and contain mostly plagiocase and pyroxene
Created by: Jazzmine Vick