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Nutrition Ch 1-4 &7

TermDefinition
Database a comprehensive collection of related information organized for convenient access.
Bioinformatics an interdisciplinary field that uses computer science and information technology to develop and improve techniques to make it easier to acquire, store, organize, retrieve, and use complex biological data.
Genomics an area of genetics that studies all genes in cells or tissues at the DNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) level.
Nutrigenetics the interaction between dietary components and the genome and the resulting changes in proteins and other substances that impact gene expression.
Epigenomics the impact of diet on changes in gene expression without changing the DNA sequence.
Biomarker a measurable biological molecule found in blood, other body fluids, or tissues that is a sign of normal or abnormal process or of a condition or disease.
Malnutrition literally, bad nutrition. In practice malnutrition refers specifically to protein-calorie undernutrition.
Nutrition Screening a quick look at a few variables to judge a client's relative risk for nutritional problems.
Nutrition Assessment an in-depth analysis of a person's nutritional status.
Carbohydrates a class of energy-yielding nutrients that contain only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. hence the common abbreviation of CHO.
Simple Sugars a classification of carbs that includes monosaccharides and disaccharides; commonly referred to as sugars.
Complex Carbs a group name for starch, glycogen, and fiber; composed of long chains of glucose molecules.
Monosaccharide (glucose, fructose, galactose) single (mono) molecules of sugar (saccharide); the most common monosaccharides in foods are hexoses that contain six carbon atoms.
Disaccharide (sucrose, maltose, lactose) "double sugar" composed of two (di) monosaccharides.
Polysaccharides (starch, glycogen, fiber) carbohydrates consisting of many (poly) sugar molecules.
Starch the storage form of glucose in plants.
Glycogen storage form of glucose in animals and humans.
Insoluble fiber nondigestible carbs that absorb but do not dissolve in water.
Soluble fiber nondigestible carbs that dissolve to a gummy viscous texture.
Dietary fiber carbs and lignin that are natural and intact components of plants that cannot be digested by human enzymes.
Functional fiber as proposed by the Food and Nutrition Board, functional fiber consists of extracted or isolated nondigestible carbs that have beneficial physiologic effects in humans.
Total fiber total fiber = dietary fiber + functional fiber.
Added sugars caloric sugars and syrups added to foods during processing or preparation or consumed separately; do not include sugars naturally present in foods, such as fructose in fruit and lactose in milk.
Whole grains contain the entire grain, or seed which includes the endosperm, bran, and germ.
Phytonutrients also known as phytochemicals, are bioactive, nonnutrient plant compounds associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases.
Refined grains consists of only the endosperm (middle part) of the grain and therefore do not contain the bran and germ portions.
Enrichment adding back certain nutrients (to specific levels) that were lost during processing.
Fortified adding nutrients that are not naturally present in the food or were present in insignificant amounts.
Endosperm storage site for starch; main source of flour.
Germ embryo that will sprout into another plant if fertilized.
Bran outer layer that protects the rest of the kernel from sunlight, pests, water, and disease.
Satiety the feeling of fullness and satisfaction after eating.
Gut microbiota also known as gut flora, is the collective term for the microorganisms that inhabit the gut.
Postprandial following a meal.
Glycemic response the effect a food has on the blood glucose concentration; how quickly the glucose level rises, how high it goes, and how long it takes to return to normal.
Glycemic index a numeric measure of the glycemic response of 50g of a food sample; the higher the number, the higher the glycemic response.
Glycemic load a food's glycemic index multiplied by the amount of carbs it contains to determine impact on blood glucose levels.
Ketone bodies intermediate, acidic compounds formed from the incomplete breakdown of fat when adequate glucose is not available.
Polyols sugar alcohols produced from the fermentation or hydrogenation of monosaccharides or disaccharides; most originate from sucrose or glucose and maltose in starches.
Nonnutritive sweeteners synthetically made sweeteners that provide minimal or no carbs and calories; also known as artificial sweeteners.
Acceptable daily intake (ADI) the estimated amount of a food additive that a person can safely consume every day over a lifetime without risk.
Intravascular within blood vessels.
Intracellular within cells.
Interstitial between cells.
Edema the swelling of body tissues secondary to the accumulation of excessive fluid.
Denatured an irreversible process in which the struture of a protein is disrupted, leading to partial or complete loss of function.
Globular spherical.
Protein digestibility how well a protein is digested to make amino acids available for protein synthesis.
Macronutrients nutrients required by the body in large amounts (gram quantities); namely, carbohydrate, protein, and fat.
Kwashiorkor a type of (protein energy malnutrition) resulting from a deficiency of protein or infections.
Marasmus a type of (protein energy malnutrition) resulting from severe deficiency or impaired absorption of calories, protein, vitamins, and minerals.
Lipids a group of water-insoluble, energy-yielding organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
Triglycerides a class of lipids composed of a glycerol molecule as its backbone with three fatty acids attached.
Fatty acids organic compounds composed of a chain of carbon atoms to which hydrogen atoms are attached. An acid group (COOH) is attached at one end, and a methyl group (CH3) at the other end.
Glycerol a three-carbon atom chain that serves as the backbone of triglycerides.
Saturated fatty acids fatty acids in which all the carbon atoms are bonded to as many hydrogen atoms as they can hold so no double bonds exist between carbon atoms.
Unsaturated fatty acids fatty acids that are not completely saturated with hydrogen atoms, so one or more double bonds form between two carbon atoms.
Monounsaturated fatty acids fatty acids that have only one double bond between two carbon atoms.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids fatty acids that have two or more double bonds between carbon atoms.
Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) the major class of atherogenic lipoproteins that carry cholesterol from the liver to the tissues.
Omega-3 fatty acid an unsaturated fatty acid whose endmost double bond occurs three carbon atoms from the methyl end of its carbon chain.
Omega-6 fatty acid an unsaturated fatty acid whose endmost double bond occurs six carbon atoms from the methyl end of its carbon chain.
Essential fatty acids fatty acids that cannot be synthesized in the body and thus must be consumed through food.
Fish oils a common term for the long chain, poly-unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA found in the fat of fish, primarily in cold-water fish.
Rancidity the chemical change that occurs when fats are oxidized, which causes an offensive taste and smell and the loss of fat-soluble vitamins A and E.
Hydrogenation a process of adding hydrogen atoms to unsaturated vegetable oils (usually corn, soybean, cottonseed, safflower, or canola oil)
Cis fats unsaturated fatty acids whose hydrogen atoms occur on the same side of the double bond.
Trans fats unsaturated fatty acids that have at least one double bond whose hydrogen atoms are on the opposite sides of the double bond; "trans" means across in Latin.
Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) compounds exempt from the definition of "food additive" because they are generally recognized as safe based on "a reasonable certainty of no harm from a product under the intended conditions of use."
Phospholipids a group of compound lipids that is similar to triglycerides in that they contain a glycerol molecule and two fatty acids.
Emulsifier a stabilizing compound that helps to keep both parts of an emulsion (oil and water mixture) from separating.
Sterols one of three main classes of lipids that include cholesterol, bile acids, sex hormones, the adrenocortical hormones, and vitamin D.
Monoglyceride a glyceride molecule with only one fatty acid attached.
Micelles fat particles encircled by bile salts to facilitate their diffusion into intestinal cells.
Chylomicrons lipoproteins that transport absorbed lipids from intestinal cells through the lymph and eventually into the bloodstream.
Marbling fat deposited in the muscle of meat.
Methylmercury mercury, a neurotoxin, is a heavy metal that occurs naturally in the environment and is released into the air through industrial pollution. It changes to methylmercury when it falls from the air into the water.
Calorie unit by which energy is measured; the amount of heat needed to raise the temp of 1kg of water by 1 degree C.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) or Basal Energy Expenditure (BEE) the amount of calories expended in a 24 hour period to fuel the involuntary activities of the body at rest and after a 12 hour fast.
Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) or Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) the amount of calories expended in a 24 hour period to fuel the involuntary activities of the body at rest.
Thermic Effect of Food an estimation of the amount of energy required to digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, and store nutrients.
Ideal Body Weight the formula given here is a universally used standard in clinical practice to quickly estimate a person's reasonable weight based on height, even though this and all other methods are not absolute.
Created by: Jessica Venyke