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Gen. Bio II - Phylog

General Biology II - Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

The Tree of Life comes from the process of ______________________ the pattern of evolution (observations of evolutionary products)
what is phylogeny the evolutionary history of a species of group of species
how do biologists reconstruct and interpret phylogenies using systematics
what is systematics a discipline focused on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships
_________________ is the scientific discipline of naming and classifying organisms taxonomy
why is binomial nomenclature used in formal science terminology many creatures have multiple common names, this avoids confusion
what is the two-part naming system that was developed by Carl Linnaeus Binomial Nomenclature
what are the two names that are used when using binomial nomenclature genus and species
name the seven layers of the animal kingdom (in order starting at domain) Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species
name the three domains, bacteria, eukarya, and archaea
what is the unit given to the hierarchy at any level taxon
the ___________________ is a pictorial version of evolutionary relationship the phylogenetic tree
phylogenetic tree is often represented by _______________________ a two-way branch points that represent divergence of two evolutionary lineages from common ancestor dichotomies
what are groups of organizms that share an immediate common ancestor sister taxa
what is the definition of "rooted" when discussing that phylogenetic tree branch points that represent a recent common ancestor of all taxa in the tree
define basal taxa a lineage that diverges in the tree early
what is the branch point from which more than two descendant groups emerge polytomy
what is a branch point on a phylogenetic tree the location on the tree where the lineage diverges
a dichotomy/polytomy on a phyolgenetic tree represents an unresolved pattern of divergence
the ____________ shows patterns of descent, not phenotypic similarity phylogenetic tree shows patterns of descent
name some industries that might benefit from the practical application of the phylogenetic tree farmers (help to maintain a good pool of alleles for cross breeding) and investigators (whether a type of whale meat is coming from an endangered group of whales)
what kind of data is used to make up phylogenies molecular data and morphological data
what are homoplasies similar (analogous) structures that arouse common ancestor
how do you evaluated molecular homologies DNA sequences of organisms are compared and aligned as much as possible to help discern relatedness
______________ is the form of classification that puts species into groups called clades which include an ancestral species and all its descendants cladistics
what is cladistics the systematic approach to classify organisms using common ancestry as the primary criterion
what does it mean when a taxon is Monophyletic the entire taxon is considered to b a clade because they are all similarly related (this includes a common ancestor and its descendants)
on the tree of life, when a group of organisms (Ancestors and descendants) are all on the same branch of the tree. They are considered to be ________________ monophyletic or a clade
define parasympathetic a group of some (not all) of organisms that have the same ancestor
define polyphyletic two species that are very distantly related. two organisms that aren't even on the same branch of the tree
_______________________ characteristic that originated in an ancestor of the taxon. shared ancestral
___________________ an evolutionary novelty that is unique to a clade shared derived
What is the difference between outgroups and ingroups an ingroup is the group that is being studied. the outgroups are the groups/species who diverged before the ingroup
why is it important to compare the ingroup and outgroup helps determine which characteristics were derived at which point evolutionarily
some phylogenetic treas have proportional branch lengths, what can these represent genetic change and time.
branch lengths proportional to _______________ of genetic changes in each lineage depicted number of genetic changes
what are two things that computer models uses when helping to construct a tree of life? maximum parsimony and maximum likelyhood
maximum ____________________ goes with the fewest evolutionary events maximum parsimony
maximum _______________________ is the most likely tree based on given set of DNA data maximum likelihood
phylogenetic trees are (hypotheses/proven) examples of life trees hypotheses
define orthologous genes homology gene result of recent evolutionary event
when do orthologous genes occur orthologous genes occurs between genes of different species
define paralogous genes a homology gene result from gene duplication with multiple copies of gene diverging within species
lineages that diverged long ago often share many ______________ genes orthologous genes
the number of genes a species has (does/does not) seem to increase through duplication at the same rate as perceived complexity number of genes a species has DOES NOT increase with perceived complexity
define molecular clock an approach for measuring absolute time of evolutionary change based on observation that some genese and other regions of genome evolve at constant rates
what are two assumptions that are made when discussing the molecular clock 1) the number of nucleotide substitutions is proportional to time elapsed branches, 2) number of substitutions in paralogous genes proportional to time
how has studying the Molecular clock helped with the HIV origin at first it indicated that HIV started spreading to humans in 1930, but recently it has placed the date 1910
how many domains are there three domains
name all three domains 1) bacteria, 2) archaea, and 3) eukarya
_____________ is the domain that is most commonly known prokaryotes bacteria
______________ is the domain for prokaryotes that live in extreme enviroments archaea
______________ is the domain for anything that is not prokaryotic eukarya
describe horizontal gene transfer the process in which genes are transferred from on genome to another through mechanisms of transposable elements and plasmids and viral infections
what changes the tree of life depending on which genes are compared horizontal gene transfer
Created by: kandriot
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