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Chapter 2

Mass Is the “stuff” of the universe Anything that has mass and takes up space
Matter Mass × gravity
States of matter 1.Solid 2.Liquid 3.Gas
Solid – has definite shape and volume
Liquid – has definite volume, changeable shape
Gas – has changeable shape and volume
Energy The capacity to do work (put matter into motion)
Types of energy 1.Kinetic 2.Potential
Kinetic – energy in action, energy carried by a moving object
Potential – energy created by position, stored (inactive) energy. E.g. height, pressure, temperature, etc.
Energy conservation law energy cannot be created or destroyed
Chemical stored in the bonds of chemical substances
Electrical results from the movement of charged particles
Mechanical directly involved in moving matter
Radiant or electromagnetic energy traveling in waves (i.e., visible light, ultraviolet light, and X-rays)
Energy Form Conversions 1.Energy is easily converted from one form to another, e.g. chemical to mechanical, chemical to electrical, etc. 2.Two forms of energy can be converted back and forth, and 3.During conversion, some energy is “lost” as heat
Composition of Matter 1.Elements 2.Atoms 3.Atomic symbol
Elements unique substances that cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means
Atoms more-or-less identical building blocks for each element
Atomic symbol one- or two-letter chemical shorthand for each element, e.g. carbon C, copper Cu, chlorine Cl, etc.
Properties of Elements Each element has unique physical and chemical properties
Physical properties Those detected with our senses
Chemical properties Pertain to the way atoms interact with one another
Major Elements of the Human Body Organic molecules: -Oxygen (O) -Carbon (C) -Hydrogen (H) -Nitrogen (N)
Lesser Elements of the Human Body Lesser elements make up 3.9% of the body and include: Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S), sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl), magnesium (Mg), iodine (I), and iron (Fe)
Trace Elements of the Human Body -Trace elements make up less than 0.01% of the body -They are required in minute amounts, and are found as part of enzymes -Zn, Cu, Fe, Co, F,
Atomic Structure All Atoms have a nucleus and electrons
The nucleus consists of neutrons and protons
Protons have a positive charge and a mass of 1 amu
Neutrons have no charge and a mass of 1amu
Electrons are found orbiting the nucleus
Electrons have a negative charge and 1/2000 the mass of a proton (0 amu)
Planetary Model electrons move around the nucleus in fixed, circular orbits
Orbital Model regions around the nucleus in which electrons are most likely to be found.
Atomic number equal to the number of protons
Mass number equal to the mass of the protons and neutrons
Atomic weight average of the mass numbers of all isotopes
Isotope atoms with same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
Radioisotopes atoms that undergo spontaneous decay called radioactivity, e.g. radioactive iodine (RAI) 131I, cobalt 60Co, etc E.g. carbon isotopes, 12C, 13C, 14C,
Molecule two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
Compound two or more different kinds of atoms chemically bonded together
Mixtures two or more components physically intermixed (not chemically bonded)
Solutions – homogeneous mixtures of components
Solvent substance present in greatest amount
Solute substance(s) present in smaller amounts
Concentration of Solutions -Percent, or parts per 100 parts (v/v, w/v) -Molarity, or moles per liter (M or mM)
A mole of an element or compound is equal to its atomic or molecular weight (sum of atomic weights) in grams
Colloids (emulsions) heterogeneous mixtures whose solutes do not settle out
Suspensions heterogeneous mixtures with visible solutes that tend to settle out
Mixtures Compared with Compounds -No chemical bonding takes place in mixtures -Most mixtures can be separated by physical means, e.g. use of evaporation temperature to distill. -Mixtures can be heterogeneous or homogeneous -Compounds cannot be separated by physical means -All compoun
In a chemical bond electron shells, or energy levels, surround the nucleus of an atom
In a chemical bond, bonds are formed using the electrons in the outermost energy level
Created by: Oliha1974
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