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Microbiology

Introduction into Microbiology

QuestionAnswer
Define microbiology and microscopic Microbiology: a branch of biology dealing with microscopic forms of life known as microorganisms. •Microscopic: invisible or indistinguishable without the use of a microscope
Define microbe (microorganism), and list which organisms are considered microbes. Microorganisms (microbes): very small organisms. Many are too small to be seen with the unaided eye Microorganisms: bacteria, fungi (yeasts and molds), protozoa, and microscopic algae
Define pathogenic disease-causing
List several ways in which microbes are beneficial to us and to the environment. basis of the food chain (oceans, lakes, rivers) decompose organic waste in the soil Are producers Produce industrial, foods, helps w digestion and production of vitamins Produce products in manufacturing and disease treatment
Define Bacteriology. Bacteriology: study of bacteria
Define Mycology. Mycology: study of fungi
Define Protozoology. Protozoology: study of protozoa
Define Parasitology. Parasitology: study of helminths and other parasites
Define Immunology. Immunology: study of the immune system
Define Virology. Virology: study of viruses
Define Medical Microbiology. Medical Microbiology: deals with microbes that cause disease in humans and animals.
Define Public Health Microbiology and Epidemiology. Public Health Microbiology and Epidemiology: monitoring and controlling spread of disease in communities
Define the career of Immunology. Immunology: studies the immune system and how it responds to infection. Includes vaccination, blood testing, and allergy
Define Industrial Microbiology. Industrial Microbiology: safeguards food and water. Includes use of microbes to make produces (bread, beer, enzymes, vitamins, etc.)
Define Agricultural Microbiology. Agricultural Microbiology: studies relationship between microbes and domesticated plants and animals
Define Environmental Microbiology. Environmental Microbiology: studies effect of microbes on earths habitats •Aquatic microbiology, soil microbiology, geomicrobiology, astrobiology
What is fermentation? Fermentation: energy production process carried out by bacteria, mold, or yeast. Produces alcohol and other products
Describe Bacteria as a microorganism. Unicellular, prokaryotic organism Found in nearly every habitat on earth Found within and on humans Most are harmless or helpful, some pathogenic Genetic material not in a true nucleus Most have cell walls that contain peptidoglycan
Describe Archae as a microorganism. Unicellular, prokaryotic organism Found in nearly every habitat on earth (include extreme environments) Some live in human body None are pathogens Have different evolutionary history and genetics than bacteria Cell walls do not have peptidoglycan
Describe Algae as a microorganism. Can be unicellular or multicellular Cells have cell walls made of cellulose Are photosynthetic Important parts of ecosystems Consumer products contain algae components •Ice cream, lipstick Agar from algae-Use in the laboratory
Describe Protozoans as a microorganism Type of protist (eukaryotic) Important part of food web Structurally diverse=cilia vs flagella vs ameboid movment Some are photosynthetic Most are harmless, some pathogenic some= parasitic organisms Extract nutrients from host
Describe Fungi as a microorganism (unicellular). Unicellular forms are called yeast Yeasts are found in many environments and on humans Yeasts can be used in food production, but can also cause food to spoil Yeasts can cause infection Vaginal yeast infection&Oral thrush
Describe Fungi as a microorganism (multicellular). Cell walls=chitin No photosynthesis Multicellular forms=mold Molds are found in many diff. environments, decompose dead plants and animals, can be harmful, used in medicine=Penicillin allergies-make mycotoxins that cause disease
Describe Helminths as a microorganism. multicellular parasitic worms, eukaryotic Not technically microorganisms (can see without a microscope) but have microscopic eggs and larvae so categorized with microorganisms Examples: tape worms, guinea worms
What falls into the category of a protist? unicellular eukaryotes that are not plants, animals, or fungi; to include algae as an example.
Describe Viruses as a microorganism. Viruses are acellular: not composed of cells Consist of proteins and genetic material (DNA or RNA) Need a host organism to multiply Can infect many different cells types (Ex: human, other microorganisms, plants, etc) Many viruses are not pathogenic
Define taxonomy and classification Taxonomy: classification, description, identification, and naming of living organisms Classification: organizing organisms into different groups based on shared characteristics
Who was Carolus Linneaus and what did he do? Carolus Linneaus: most famous early taxonomist, he established the system of nomenclature(naming) for organisms that we us today. He made it in 1735.
Know what the Linnean Taxonomy is. Linnaean taxonomy: system of categorizing and naming organisms Grouping organisms in a hierarchy of increasingly specific levels based on similarities Important so scientists can communicate with one another using standardized terminology
What are the 3 Domains? Archae, Eukarya, Bacteria
Know the Linnean Taxonomy Groupings and their order. Linnean Taxonomy Groupings:•Kingdom•Phylum•Class•Order•Family•Genus•Species
Where does domain fit into taxonomy groupings? Domain is put at the top of the updated taxonomy groupings. Archae and Bacteria classifications don't use kingdom
Who developed the tree of life that included domain groupings? Woese - The Fox Tree of Life (1970)
Know how to use the scientific nomenclature that uses two names: a genus and a specific epithet. (remember to capitalize the genus and to underline the whole scientific name is handwriting and italicize if typing)
What are the kinds of info that could be included in a scientific name? Scientific names might describe an organism, honor a researcher, or identify a habitat.
Define microbiome and what are the benefits of the microbiome? The microbiome is a group of microbes that live stably on/in the human body •Help to maintain good health •Can prevent growth of pathogenic microbes •May help train the immune system to discriminate threats
How are normal microbiota acquired? -Begin to be acquired as newborns -May colonize the body indefinitely or fleetingly -Colonize only occurs at body sites that provide nutrients and the right environment for the microbes to flourish
What is normal microbiota? Normal microbiota is the collection of acquired microorganisms on or in a healthy human being
What is the cell theory? the theory that all living things are composed of cells.
What is Robert Hooke known for? In 1665, after observing a thin slice of cork through a crude microscope, Englishman Robert Hooke reported that life’s smallest structural units were “little boxes,” or “cells.”; Cell Theory.
What is Anton van Leeuwenhoek known for Dutch merchant and amateur scientist Anton van Leeuwenhoek was probably the first to observe live microorganisms through the magnifying lenses of the more than 400 microscopes he constructed. Through rainwater, feces, and teeth.
Define spontaneous generation. Until the second half of the nineteenth century, many scientists and philosophers believed that some forms of life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter; they called this hypothetical process spontaneous generation.
What was Francesco Redi known for. Physician Francesco Redi set out in 1668 to demonstrate that maggots did not arise spontaneously. He did the experiment with the flies and raw meat to prove that spontaneous generation is false.
How did Louis Pasteur disprove spontaneous generation? Microorganisms don’t originate from mystical forces present in nonliving materials Appearance of life in nonliving solutions is due to microorganisms that were already present in the fluid itself or in the air air contamination
What is aseptic technique? techniques used to prevent microbial contamination
Define pasteurization, and discuss how it relates to spoilage. Who invented it? The process, called pasteurization, is now commonly used to reduce spoilage and kill potentially harmful bacteria in milk and other beverages as well as in some alcoholic beverages. Invented by French scientist Louis Pasteur.
Define biogenesis and discuss how it relates to spontaneous generation. Who came up with the concept of biogenesis? In 1858 Rudolf Virchow challenged the case for spontaneous generation with the concept of biogenesis, hypothesizing that living cells arise only from preexisting living cells.
What is the Golden Age of Microbiology? The period from 1857 to 1914 has been appropriately named the First Golden Age of Microbiology. Rapid advances, spearheaded mainly by Pasteur and Robert Koch, led to the establishment of microbiology.
Describe the germ theory of disease. the possibility that microorganisms might have similar relationships with plants and animals—specifically, that microorganisms might cause disease.
What is Joseph well known for? In the 1860s, Joseph Lister, an English surgeon, applied the germ theory to medical procedures.
How did Robert Koch identify the organism that caused anthrax in cattle? Cultured bacteria from blood of dead cattle•injected samples of the bacteria in healthy cattle•Healthy cattle then became ended up died He took the bacteria from these newly dead cattle and compared to the original bacteria Both bacteria were the same
What are Koch’s Postulates? a sequence of experimental steps for directly relating a specific microbe to a specific disease
What is Ignaz Semmelweis known for? in the 1840s, the Hungarian physician Ignaz Semmelweis had demonstrated that physicians, who at the time did not disinfect their hands, routinely transmitted infections (puerperal, or childbirth, fever) from one obstetrical patient to another.
What is John Snow known for? Demonstrated that cholera bacteria were transmitted in contaminated drinking water.
What is the miasma hypothesis? The Romans built aqueducts to bring carry wastes away from their cities and to bring in fresh water They believed in the miasma hypothesis: that disease came from bad air Their practices actually protected them from waterborne illness
Discuss the Rod of Asclepius and why it relates to microbiology. represents the removal of parasitic guinea worms (Figure 1.8). Asclepius was a Greek physician who practiced about 1200 b.c.e. and was deified as the god of medicine.
Created by: Nicofosho15