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Melanin Storyline

Melanin Storyline Essential Terms

TermDefinition
albino A person or animal having a congenital absence of pigment in the skin and hair and the eyes.
genotype The collection of genes responsible for the various genetic traits of a given organism
phenotype The physical appearance or biochemical characteristic of an organism as a result of the interaction of its genotype and the environment.
dominant Pertains to the one that determines the phenotype of an organism.
recessive A gene that can be masked by a dominant gene
heterozygous Used to describe a cell, a nucleus, or an individual organism that carries different or non-identical alleles for a particular trait at the same loci on homologous chromosomes
homozygous A word that refers to a particular gene that has identical alleles on both homologous chromosomes.
purebred Refers to offspring resulting from a true breeding
hybrid The offspring resulting from combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction
carrier A person or other organism that has inherited a recessive allele for a genetic trait or mutation but usually does not display that trait to show symptoms of the disease.
pedigree An ancestral line or chart depicting the lineage or descent of an individual
allele One of the possible forms of a gene
Punnett square A square diagram that is used to predict the genotypes of a particular cross or breeding experiment.
monohybrid The cross between parents with different alleles for a single gene locus of interest
dihybrid Describes a mating experiment between two organisms that are identically hybrid for two traits
poacher Illegal hunting or capturing of wild animals, usually associated with land use rights
karyotype The number, size, and shape of chromosomes in an organism
mutation Occurs when a DNA gene is damaged or changed in such a way as to alter the genetic message carried by that gene.
DNA A double helix, a molecule that contains the instructions an organism needs to develop, live, and reproduce
Protein synthesis A process of creating protein molecules
diploid Refers to a cell or an organism that had two sets of chromosomes
haploid The terms used when a cell had half the usual number of chromosomes
chromosome A structure in all living cells that consists of a single molecule of DNA bonded to various proteins and that carries the genes determining heredity
gene Defined as the fundamental, physical, and functional unit of heredity since a gene is comprised of nucleotides that is phenotype of an organismresponsible for the physical and heritable characteristics or
Human chromosome Diploid-46 organized into 23 pairs- 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes
Autosomal chromosome Any chromosome except for the sex chromosome
Sex linked trait A trait that is controlled by a gene or an allele located on the sex chromosome
Sex chromosomes Genes that are carried by either sec chromosomes are said to be sex linked. X or Y
Female sex genotype XX
Male sex genotype XY
Gene map A list of ordered genetic loci for a particular genome
loci A specific, fixed position on a chromosome where a particular gene or genetic marker is located
centromere A specialized structure on the chromosome, appearing during cell division as the constricted central region where the two chromatids are held together and form an X shape
transcription The process by which the information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of mRNA.
translation The process by which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cells nucleus.
proteins Polymers of amino acids
nucleus an organelle found in eukaryotic cells that contains DNA and the genetic material of an organism
Cell organelle Any of the specialized structures within a cell that perform a specific function
ribosomes A sphere-shaped structure within the cytoplasm of a cell that is composed of RNA and protein and is the site of protein synthesis.
Amino acids A type of organic acid that contains a carboxyl functional group and an amine functional group as well as a side chain that is specific to the individual amino acid
DNA nitrogenous bases Simply a nitrogen-containing molecule that has the same chemical properties as a base. Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Cytosine © and Thymine (T)
RNA nitrogenous bases A molecule that contains nitrogen and has the chemical properties of a base. Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Uracil (U) and Cytosine ©
melanin The pigment that gives human skin, hair, and eyes their color
Silent mutation A form of point mutation in a codon that codes for the same or different amino acid but without any functional change in the protein product
Frameshift mutation A genetic mutation caused by a number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three; insertion or deletion are two types
Substitution mutation A mutation that exchanges one base for another.
Insertion mutation The addition of one or more nucleotide base pairs into a DNA sequence
Deletion mutation A mutation in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is left out during a DNA replication
codon A sequence of three DNA or RNA nucleotides that corresponds with a specific amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis
Triplet codon A specific sequence of three consecutive nucleotides that is part of the genetic code and that specifies a particular amino acid in a protein or starts or stops protein synthesis
Protein folding The process by which a protein structure assumes its functional shape or conformation
Environmental factors Any factor, abiotic or biotic, that influences living organisms
UV radiation That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum between X-rays and visible light between 40 and 400 nanometer wavelengths
Vitamin D A steroid vitamin which promotes the intestinal absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus
homeostasis The ability to maintain a constant internal environment in response to environmental changes
Abiotic factors Non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organism and the functioning of ecosystems
Biotic factor A living thing or any living component within an environment in which the action of the organism affects the life of another organism
Selective pressure Any phenomena which alters the behavior and fitness of living organisms within a given environment
evolution Change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations
altitude Space extended upward; height; the perpendicular elevation of an object above its foundation, above the ground, or above a given level, or of one object above another; as, the altitude of a mountain, or of a bird above the top of a tree
Selective factor The preferential survival and reproduction or preferential elimination of individuals with certain genotypes, by means of natural or artificial controlling factors
adaptation The adjustment or changes in behavior, physiology, and structure of an organism to become more suited to an environment; the state reaches by the biological population undergoing adjustments or changes
folate A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy
Natural selection The process in nature by which, according to Darwin, only the organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive & transmit their genetic characters in increasing numbers to succeeding generations while lose less adapted tend to be eliminated
population All the organisms of the same group or species which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding
chromatid Each of the two threadlike strands into which a chromosome divides longitudinally during cell division
Sister chromatid Refers to the identical copies formed by the DNA replication of a chromosome, with both copies joined together by a common centromere
Somatic cell Any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cell
gamete The cells used during sexual reproduction to produce a new individual organism or zygote
Created by: rleffingwell