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Madison VanderVelde

Science test (Tsumanis)

What are giant, powerful waves most often caused by earthquakes beneath the ocean floor? Tsunamis
What can tsunamis also be caused by? Landslides
What was one of the most devastating tsunamis that killed more than 200,000 people in 2004. What was the name of the earthquake? Indian earthquake
A_______on earth is a vent or fissure in the planets crust through which lava, ash, rock, and gasses erupt. Volcano
The most common types of volcanoes are_______. Airborne fragments of lava, called tephra, are ejected from a single vent. Cinder cone
_______are built layers of alternating lava flow, ash and blocks of unmelted stone. Stratovolcano
________ volcanos are huge gently sloping volcanoes built of very think lava spreading out in all directions. Sheild
_______ are built up when lava is too viscous to flow. lava dome
_______ is a bowl-shaped depression formed when a volcano collapses. caldera
________ is when magma solidifies in the fissure of a volcano the hard dense rock may form a "neck" that remains when softer surrounding rock has been eroded away. volcanic plug
_________ are shallow, flat-floored craters. Tuff cones
How many active volcanoes are there today? 1,500
Where are most volcanoes located? Where the tectonic plates meet
75% of all volcanoes are located around this ocean_______. they form a horseshoe shape called ________. Pacific. The ring of fire.
Where are most volcanoes located under water? Near mid-ocean-ridges
Why does magma rise through the earths mantle? Because it is lighter than the surrounding rock
Magma that floes out of a volcano and reaches the earths surface is called? lava
What is pyroclastic flow? Hot ash mixed with gas that flows down a mountain.
what are volcanic hot spots Where earths crust is thin and lava can break through to create volcanoes.
Tephra- describes igneous rocks that formed during volcanic eruptions that blew molten rock into the air.
Lapilli- a peanut a walnut sized rock between 2 to 64 mm.
Lava Bombs- fragments of rock greater than 64 mm. They are made from semi-molten blobs of lava.
Lava blocks- Rock fragments of rock greater than 64 mm. They are made from solid rocks or fragments of solid rocks.
The theory that the continents were one big landmass before moving apart to form the continents as we know them today is called the theory of Continental Drift
Who pioneered this theory Alfred Wegener
This giant land mass was known as______. Pangea
Some evidence to support the theory of continental drift Fossils and Rocks found on opposite land masses Continents appear to fit together Mountain ranges being matched all around the world
Harry Hess theorized that hot magma rises up into the rift valley at the mid-ocean-ridges. The lava cools to form a new seafloor. The new lava pushes the seafloor horizontally away from the ridge axis. This theory is called? Seafloor spreading
Sonar showed that the ocean floor was not flat like previously thought, but looked more like huge _______ ranges like we see on land. These are called_______. Mid-ocean-ridges
The upper part of the earth's interior is called_____.The lower part is called ________. Lithosphere Asthenosphere
The earth's magnetic field causes a ______ pattern of new rock every time that magnetic field "flips" or reverses polarity. stripping
The youngest oceanic crust is near the________. Mid-ocean-ridge
The lithosphere is broken up into several pieces called______. Tectonic plates
These plates mover around the the mantle or the_________. Asthenosphere
Hot material in the mantle. rises and cools and sinks creating a _______ current which move like a conveyor belt under the tectonic plates. convection
_________ bounday is where two plates separate Divergent
A divergent boundary under water is called the_______. mid-ocean-ridge
A divergent boundary on land is called._______. rift valley(when pulling apart)
A _________ boundary is where the tectonic plates crash together. Convergent
Oceanic/Continental boundary is where the oceanic plates collide with_________. Oceanic/Oceanic boundary is Land
Created by: 2024549MV



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